The Czech Police Museum (Muzeum Policie ČR) – Prague

The Czech Police Museum (Muzeum Policie ČR) is housed in the grounds of a former Augustinian monastery that was founded by Charles IV back in 1350. In 1960 the site, which had been used as a convalescent home until 1955 and had subsequently fallen into disrepair, was handed over to the Ministry of Interior who established a Museum of the Frontier Guards in 1965. This evolved into a museum related to the Ministry of Interior and National Security before being remodeled as the Police Museum after the collapse of Communism.

I would describe this museum as an ‘old-school’ museum, relying on uniforms, weapons, life-size dioramas and equipment to tell the story of policing rather than the ‘bells & whistles’ interactive exhibit style which characterizes many museums today. For collectors, such as myself, this makes for a much more rewarding visit as we can examine objects rather than be presented with a game like simulations. In this instance the downside is that the captions and didactic information is mostly in Czech so it can often be difficult to understand the full context of what one is looking at. As a result, I apologise for the brevity of my picture captions as I could not always gather precise information about specific pieces on display.

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On the ground floor, the main part of the museum follows a meandering wide corridor which presents a chronological history of Czech law enforcement beginning with a history of policing from 1850 to 1938. It then moves onto exhibits detailing activities related to the second world war period, covering the security forces of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia as well as activities during the German occupation, including the May uprising and resistance. This is followed by post-war developments focusing on the establishment of the SNB (Sbor Národní Bezpečnosti – National Security Corps), Border Guard and the State Security (StB) apparatus. The museum then transitions to contemporary policing in the Czech Republic. These exhibits include lots of uniforms, weapons, equipment and photographs to give the visitor an idea of the transition over time as well as detailing specific organisational changes.

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Uniforms worn by PPVB and OZU (ie. Red berets) circa 1989

Uniforms worn by PPVB (Emergency Public Security Unit) and OZU (Police Special Purpose Unit) at the time of the Velvet Revolution in 1989. Photo: Julian Tennant

In addition, there are several rooms and antechambers that concentrate on specific aspects in more depth such as forensics, criminal investigation and traffic control. Upstairs are some very interesting galleries which explore aspects such as NBC and civil defence, anti-narcotic operations etc.

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Various NBC protective garments on display at the Czech Police Museum, Prague. Photo: Julian Tennant.

One of the galleries that I found particularly interesting is devoted to the ÚRN (Útvar Rychlého Nasazení) also known as URNA which is the Special Operations unit of the Czech Police operating under the command of the Ministry of Interior.

Czech police special unit URNA (Útvar rychlého nasazení)

Czech police special unit URNA (Útvar rychlého nasazení) patches. Photo: Julian Tennant

Czech police special unit URNA (Útvar rychlého nasazení)

Czech Police counter terrorist URNA operative Afganistan display at the Police museum, Prague. Photo: Julian Tennant

The grounds outside the main building include several vehicles used by the police including patrol cars, watercraft and a Mil Mi-2 helicopter.  There is also a children’s traffic playground which is open to the public from April to October depending on the weather.

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Home made tank made between 1969 and 1970 by Vladimir Benes from the village of Hrusky in the Breclav region. On the night of May 19, 1970 he used this tank to take his wife and children to cross the border into Austria. During his attempt the tank broke down and he abandoned it but he was able to cross successfully and eventually settled in the USA where he died in 2009. In the background is a Mil Mi-2 helicopter used by the Czech Police. Photo: Julian Tennant

Despite the overall lack of English language didactic panels, I found this museum to be very interesting and like the Army Museum Žižkov (unfortunately now closed) definitely worth the visit. The museum is located approximately 2.5 kilometers south of the Old Town square (Staré Mesto námesti) and can be reached via public transport (with some walking). Instead, I opted for the half an hour walk as it was only marginally longer than the public transport option and also allowed me to detour past Vojenské Starožitnosti, a militaria dealer that offers a good selection of older medals, insignia and other military items.

Muzeum Policie ČR
Ke Karlovu 1
120 00 Praha 2 – Nové Město
Prague, Czech Republic

Phone: +420 224 922 183
Email: sekretariat@muzeumpolicie.cz
Website: http://www.muzeumpolicie.cz

Open: Tuesday to Sunday 10:00 – 17:00 (Closed Mondays)

Entry Fees:
Adults 100 CZK
Children/Seniors/Concession 50 CZK
Family Group (2+s) 200 CZK

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Note that this site has NEW content posted every Sunday! If you like what you see here, please follow this page via email or by using either the buttons below or in the column on the right. Knowing that somebody is looking at this gives me the encouragement I need to go through my archives and collection to develop the content for the page. And of course, feel free to contact me here, via email or by visiting my Facebook or Instagram pages

The Army Museum of Western Australia Part 2

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The Army Museum of Western Australia ticket office and shop. Photo: Julian Tennant

Last week, in Part 1 of my review of the Army Museum of Western Australia, I showed some of the exhibits from the Tradtions, Pre-1914, World War One, Prisoner of War and World War 2 Galleries. This second part focuses on the Post 1945 Galleries and the Guns & Vehicles section which includes the larger exhibits not displayed in the main exhibition building.

Click on the photographs to enlarge the images and read the caption information which provides more detail about what is shown in the photographs.

Entrance to the POST 1945 GALLERY at the Army Museum of Western Australia. Photo: Julian Tennant

Entrance to the POST 1945 GALLERY at the Army Museum of Western Australia. Photo: Julian Tennant

The POST-1945 gallery examines the Army’s involvement from the Occupation of Japan, through the Korean, Malaya, Borneo and Vietnam conflicts up to contemporary operations in the Middle East. Also included are exhibits related to the various humanitarian and United Nations deployments as well as uniforms from the locally based Citizen Military Force (reservist) units.

Korea c1952. Australian soldier wearing a mix of Australian, American and Canadian uniforms and armed with an Owen Machine Carbine.

Korea c1952. Australian soldier wearing a mix of Australian, American and Canadian uniforms and armed with an Owen Machine Carbine. Photo: Julian Tennant

Malayan Emergency c1955. Australian soldier wearing British issue uniform and equipment, armed with a .303 inch Mk1 Number 5 Jungle Carbine. Photo: Julian Tennant

Malayan Emergency c1955. Australian soldier wearing British issue uniform and equipment, armed with a .303 inch Mk1 Number 5 Jungle Carbine. Photo: Julian Tennant

After covering the occupation of Japan, Korean War and Malayan emergency of the 1950’s the galleries then turn their attention to the army units based in Western Australia.

Patch detail of 3 Troop, A Squadron, 10 Light Horse Regiment. Photo: Julian Tennant

Patch detail of 3 Troop, A Squadron, 10 Light Horse Regiment. Photo: Julian Tennant

 

The galleries then turn their attention to the 1960’s with it’s Vietnam War displays which feature some interesting items related to members of the Perth based Special Air Service Regiment (SASR) in Vietnam. SASR, which was first raised as a Company based at the coastal suburb of Swanbourne. The unit first deployed on operations to Borneo prior to its service in Vietnam and this is the one gap that I noticed in the displays. However, I’m not sure if this is an omission on the part of the museum or just me missing something as I tried to take in everything on display.

Australian Special Air Service Regiment (SASR) trooper Vietnam, circa 1969. Note the in-country 'chopped-down' L1A1 SLR rifle. Photo: Julian Tennant

Australian Special Air Service Regiment (SASR) trooper Vietnam, circa 1969. Note the in-country ‘chopped-down’ L1A1 SLR rifle. Photo: Julian Tennant

Delco AN/PRC-64 radio, which was used by the Australian Special Air Service Regiment (SASR) as their principle patrol radio for communications back to SHQ during their operations in Vietnam. Photo: Julian Tennant

Delco AN/PRC-64 radio, which was used by the Australian Special Air Service Regiment (SASR) as their principle patrol radio for communications back to SHQ during their operations in Vietnam. Photo: Julian Tennant

Terrain map model showing the unit locations within the 1st Australian Task Force Base at Nui Dat in Phouc Tuy province, South Vietnam in 1971. Photo: Julian Tennant

Terrain map model showing the unit locations within the 1st Australian Task Force Base at Nui Dat in Phouc Tuy province, South Vietnam in 1971. Photo: Julian Tennant

Australian soldier - South Vietnam c1969. Beside him is a M18A1 (Claymore) Anti Personnel Mine. Photo: Julian Tennant

Australian soldier – South Vietnam c1969. Beside him is a M18A1 (Claymore) Anti Personnel Mine. Photo: Julian Tennant

Lieutenant wearing the Summer uniform of the Royal Australian Nursing Corps, Vietnam era c1969. Photo: Julian Tennant

Lieutenant wearing the Summer uniform of the Royal Australian Nursing Corps, Vietnam era c1969. Photo: Julian Tennant

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Japanese made Australian Training Team Vietnam (AATTV) patch. These patches were introduced in 1967 and the majority were made in Japan. Later, a small quantity were made locally in Vietnam, however the majority of AATTV members used this Japanese made patch. The locally made variation is extremely rare due to the small numbers manufactured and collectors should be cautious when acquiring these patches as they have been extensively copied and generally do not resemble the original ‘local-made’ patches. Photo: Julian Tennant

 

The POST 1945 Gallery then transitions to more recent operations including humanitarian support operations, United Nations deployments and Australia’s commitments to the conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq.

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Mine warning sign and shirt worn by Corporal Steve Danaher (RASIGS) whilst deployed to Cambodia as part of the UNTAC mission in 1993. Photo: Julian Tennant

Mine warning sign and shirt worn by Corporal Steve Danaher (RASIGS) whilst deployed to Cambodia as part of the UNTAC mission in 1993. Photo: Julian Tennant

Australian Special Air Service trooper armed with an M4 carbine and pistol. Afghanistan 2008. Photo: Julian Tennant

Australian Special Air Service trooper armed with an M4 carbine and pistol. Afghanistan 2008. Photo: Julian Tennant

 

The final section is referred to as GUNS AND VEHICLES and is spread around the main parade-ground plus the other covered locations external to the main building. The exhibits featured in this section range from heavy mortar’s and artillery pieces to armoured cars, tanks and other vehicles. Of particular interest in this section is the Australian Special Forces Amphibian Mk3 Commando Kayak which replaced the German made Klepper Aerius II in 1988. I was also surprised to see one of the Mercedes Unimogs that had been converted by SASR as a support vehicle for use in Afghanistan and I suspect that this may be the only one in a public collection in Australia.

Amphibian Mk3 Commando Kayak. Built in 1986 by PJP Marine of Kirrawee in NSW to replace the Kleppers used by the Special Air Service Regiment, Australian Commandos and the RAN Special Ship Assault Navy Diving Teams. Designed to have no radar signature, quick to assemble nd more stable under tow and during heavy sea operations thand the German made Klepper Aerius II. They were also air portable and capable of being launched from the Oberon and Collins class submarines. 120 were made. Photo: Julian Tennant

Amphibian Mk3 Commando Kayak. Built in 1986 by PJP Marine of Kirrawee in NSW to replace the Klepper Aerius II then used by the Special Air Service Regiment, Australian Commandos and the RAN Special Ship Assault Navy Diving Teams. Designed to have no radar signature, quick to assemble and more stable under tow and during heavy sea operations than the German made Klepper, they were also air portable and capable of being launched from the Oberon and Collins class submarines. 120 were made and brought into service in 1988. Photo: Julian Tennant

Special Air Service Regiment / Special Operations Task Group (SOTG) Afghanistan modified Mercedes Unimog. These vehicles were 'up armoured' and modified to meet the specific operational requirements whilst operating in Afghanistan between 2005 until 2011. Photo: Julian Tennant

Special Air Service Regiment / Special Operations Task Group (SOTG) Afghanistan modified Mercedes Unimog. These vehicles were ‘up armoured’ and modified to meet the specific operational requirements whilst operating in Afghanistan between 2005 until 2011. Photo: Julian Tennant

This is a well laid out and interesting museum, with clear descriptions of the exhibits, supported by a staff of volunteers including many ex-servicemen who are happy to chat to visitors. Being largely volunteer run, the opening hours are a little restricted, being from 10:30 until 15:00 (last entries 13:00) from Wednesday to Sunday. There is no on-site parking for visitors, but it is not too difficult to find parking in the surrounding streets. If you’re relying on public transport, several buses leaving from the Fremantle train station pass close by or it’s an easy 20-minute walk from the station. An important point for visitors to note is that all adult visitors must be able to show appropriate photo identification (passport, drivers’ licence etc) prior to entry.

A selection of Dies used to manufacture badges. These were in a section currently being prepared for display. I suspect that the Dies are from the Sheridans company that is based in Perth and has made many military badges, particularly in the first half of the 20th century. Photo: Julian Tennant

A selection of Dies used to manufacture badges. These were in a section currently being prepared for display in one of the shed areas of the GUNS AND VEHICLES section, although I am not sure if this is where they will finally be placed on display. I suspect that the Dies are from the Sheridans company that is based in Perth and has made many military badges, particularly in the first half of the 20th century. Photo: Julian Tennant

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Location map showing the relative distance of the Army Museum of Western Australia from Fremantle Train Station. It is quite an easy walk or there are regular bus services that stop nearby.

The Army Museum of Western Australia
Artillery Barracks
Burt Street
Fremantle, Western Australia, 6160

Phone: +61 (0)8 9430 2535
Fax: +61 (0)8 9430 2519
Email: info@armymuseumwa.com.au
Website: www.armymuseumwa.com.au

Open: Wednesday to Sunday inclusive from 10:30 am to 3:00 pm. Last entry at 1:00 pm.
Group bookings can be arranged for Wednesday, Thursday or Friday.

Note:
Photo ID required for entrance
Wheelchair access available
Only ACROD parking allowed on-site

Entry Fees:
Adults $15
Seniors/Concession $10
Child (6-17) $10
Family Group (2+3) $35
For School and other group tours refer to details in Bookings

_____________________________________________________

Note that this site has NEW content posted every Sunday! If you like what you see here, please follow this page via email or by using either the buttons below or in the column on the right. Knowing that somebody is looking at this gives me the encouragement I need to go through my archives and collection to develop the content for the page. And of course, feel free to contact me here, via email or by visiting my Facebook or Instagram pages

The Army Museum of Western Australia Part 1

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The Army Museum of Western Australia forms part of the Australian Army History Unit network of museums that document, conserve and promote the history of the Australian Army. Housed in the, heritage listed, Artillery Barracks built between 1910 and 1913 to house the artillerymen tasked to defend the Port of Fremantle, the museum reflects the history of the Australian Army in Western Australia and the service of Western Australians’ service within the army from the colonial period through to the present day.

The museum explores these themes through seven sections and is one of the largest military museums in Australia. For Part 1 of this review I will show some of the exhibits from the Tradtions, Pre-1914, World War One, Prisoner of War and World War 2 Galleries. Part 2 will focus on the Post 1945 Galleries and the Guns & Vehicles section which includes the larger exhibits not displayed in the main exhibition building. Click on the photographs to read the caption information which provides more detail about what is shown.

The TRADITIONS section provides an overview of the Australian Army. Rather than focus on any single time period, the exhibits present a cross-section delving into the customs & traditions, rank structures, insignia, Regimental Colour’s, honours & awards of the Army. For visitors not familiar with the Australian Army it presents a nice introduction whilst also allowing some items, which otherwise may not have been displayed, to be shown to the public.

Australian Army brassards and slouch hat puggarees in the the Traditions Gallery. Photo: Julian Tennant

Various brassards and slouch hat Puggarees used by the Australian Army in the the Traditions Gallery. Photo: Julian Tennant

Special Air Service Regiment, Military Police and Royal Australian Corps of Transport attached to Australian Army Aviation Corps berets in the Traditions Gallery of the Army Museum of Western Australia. Photo: Julian Tennant

Special Air Service Regiment, Military Police and Royal Australian Corps of Transport attached to Australian Army Aviation Corps berets in the Traditions Gallery of the Army Museum of Western Australia. Photo: Julian Tennant

 

The PRE-1914 galleries cover the colonial garrisons, Pensioner Guards, pre-Federation volunteer units, the creation of the Western Australian Defence Force and the transition to Commonwealth Military Forces after Federation in 1901.

Slouch hat dated 1915 for the 25th Australian Light Horse Regiment (Militia) worn by John Campbell Dale Warren who was killed in France whilst serving with the 16th Battalion, AIF. Photo: Julian Tennant

Slouch hat dated 1915 for the 25th Australian Light Horse Regiment (Militia) worn by John Campbell Dale Warren who was killed in France whilst with the 16th Battalion, AIF. Photo: Julian Tennant

 

The WORLD WAR ONE galleries cover the Australian contribution to the First World War with an emphasis on the personal narratives of individual Western Australians who served in the Australian Imperial Force (AIF) during the war.

Medal group to Sister Alicia Mary Kelly MM, AARC. Sister Kelly's Military Medal (MM) was one of only seven awarded to Australian nurses for bravery under fire in WW1. Photo: Julian Tennant

Medal group to Sister Alicia Mary Kelly MM, AARC. Sister Kelly’s Military Medal (MM) was one of only seven awarded to Australian nurses for bravery under fire in WW1. Photo: Julian Tennant

Aircraft Propeller Tips Converted to Photograph Frames and hand painted to show service with No. 1 Squadron Australian Flying Corps in Egypt and Palestine 1916 to 1918. These were made by Frank Oldfield who served as a ground crew member in the squadron He is seen in uniform seated to the left with his brother, Doug, who is standing. The other frame has a photograph of his brothers (one being Jack) both in civilian clothing.

Aircraft Propeller Tips Converted to Photograph Frames and hand painted to show service with No. 1 Squadron Australian Flying Corps in Egypt and Palestine 1916 to 1918. These were made by Frank Oldfield who served as a ground crew member in the squadron He is seen in uniform seated to the left with his brother, Doug, who is standing. The other frame has a photograph of his brothers in civilian clothing. Photo: Julian Tennant

 

The POW experience is covered in depth with its own PRISONER OF WAR Gallery which looks at the stories of capture and internment from the Boer to Korean Wars. Special attention is given to the POW experiences on the Thai-Burma Railway through a series of life-size dioramas. If I recall correctly from the brief period where I helped as a behind-the-scenes volunteer in the mid 2000’s, these displays came about through the efforts of some of the West Australian soldiers who were taken captive by the Japanese when Singapore fell and subsequently endured the construction of the Thai-Burma railway.

3 badges made from silver foil used in cigarette packets. These were made in 1944 by Sgt K.T. Sneider, a Czech POW. The cord represents the Czechoslovkian national colours. Top to bottom - RAF Pilot Wings, POW Parachute club and a Czech Air Force Badge. Photo: Julian Tennant

3 badges made by a Prisoner of War from silver foil used in cigarette packets. These were made in 1944 by Sgt K.T. Sneider, a Czech POW. The cord represents the Czechoslovkian national colours. Top to bottom – RAF Pilot Wings, POW Parachute club and a Czech Air Force Badge. Photo: Julian Tennant

Cased American Air Force Badge made by American POW's in 1944. Made from bits and pieces found in the camp, for example the lead to blacken the badges was taken from ridge capping off prison buildings. Photo: Julian Tennant

Cased American Army Air Force Aerial Gunner’s badge made by American POW’s in 1944. This badge was made from bits and pieces found in the camp, for example the lead to blacken the badges was taken from ridge capping off prison buildings. Photo: Julian Tennant

WORLD WAR TWO is represented in the next section which is upstairs. It follows the stories of the Australian Divisions of the 2nd AIF through North Africa, Greece, Crete, Syria, Singapore, Papua/New Guinea and the campaign in the South West Pacific Theatre. It also explores the home front and how Western Australia, isolated by distance from the rest of Australia prepared for its own defence.

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Syrian Khanjar Daggers. This pair of decorative daggers, one with Damascus 1942 engraved on the scabbard was acquired as a souvenir from Damascus by WX8940, Private Brian George Watson of the 2/28th Battalion. He became a POW of the Germans at the Battle of Ruin Ridge on 16/17 July 1942, which was the final attack of the first Battle of El Alamein. Photo: Julian Tennant

Syrian Khanjar Daggers. This pair of decorative daggers, one with Damascus 1942 engraved on the scabbard was acquired as a souvenir by WX8940, Private Brian George Watson of the 2/28th Battalion. He became a POW of the Germans at the Battle of Ruin Ridge on 16/17 July 1942, which was the final attack of the first Battle of El Alamein. Photo: Julian Tennant

For those interested in commando and special operations, this gallery features a very nice selection of exhibits related to the activities of the Australian commandos, particularly the 2/2nd Independent Company and Z Special Unit of the Services Reconnaissance Department.

Fighting Knives and Knuckle Duster used by Australian Special Forces Units such as Z Special Unit, 2/2md Commando and III Australian Corps Guerilla Warfare Group. Photo: Julian Tennant

Fighting Knives and Knuckle Duster used by Australian Special Forces Units such as Z Special Unit, 2/2md Commando and III Australian Corps Guerilla Warfare Group. Photo: Julian Tennant

The Motor Submersible Canoe, better known as a "Sleeping Beauty" was developed by Camper and Nicholsons Yacht Division in the UK in conjunction with the Royal Marines in 1943. They were designed to deliver one man silently into harbours to attach limpet mines to enemy vessels. Although used for training in the North Sea they were used operationally for the first time by Major Ivan Lyon of Z Special Unit on Operation RIMAU in 1944.

The Motor Submersible Canoe, better known as a “Sleeping Beauty” was developed by Camper and Nicholsons Yacht Division in the UK in conjunction with the Royal Marines in 1943. They were designed to deliver one man silently into harbours to attach limpet mines to enemy vessels. Although used for training in the North Sea they were used operationally for the first time by Major Ivan Lyon of Z Special Unit on Operation RIMAU in 1944. Photos: Julian Tennant

 

This is a well laid out and interesting museum, with clear descriptions of the exhibits, supported by a staff of volunteers including many ex-servicemen who are happy to chat to visitors. Being largely volunteer run, the opening hours are a little restricted, being from 10:30 until 15:00 (last entries 13:00) from Wednesday to Sunday. There is no on-site parking for visitors, but it is not too difficult to find parking in the surrounding streets. If you’re relying on public transport, several buses leaving from the Fremantle train station pass close by or it’s an easy 20-minute walk from the station. An important point for visitors to note is that all adult visitors must be able to show appropriate photo identification (passport, drivers’ licence etc) prior to entry.

Next week I will take a look at the Post 1945 Galleries plus the Guns & Vehicles section.

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The Army Museum of Western Australia
Artillery Barracks
Burt Street
Fremantle, Western Australia, 6160

Phone: +61 (0)8 9430 2535
Fax: +61 (0)8 9430 2519
Email: info@armymuseumwa.com.au
Website: www.armymuseumwa.com.au

Open: Wednesday to Sunday inclusive from 10:30 am to 3:00 pm. Last entry at 1:00 pm.
Group bookings can be arranged for Wednesday, Thursday or Friday.

Note:
Photo ID required for entrance
Wheelchair access available
Only ACROD parking allowed on-site

Entry Fees:
Adults $15
Seniors/Concession $10
Child (6-17) $10
Family Group (2+3) $35
For School and other group tours refer to details in Bookings

WA Army Museum-100

Reproduction Australian Rising Sun hat badges on sale at the museum shop. Photo: Julian Tennant

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Note that this site has NEW content posted every Sunday! If you like what you see here, please follow this page via email or by using either the buttons below or in the column on the right. Knowing that somebody is looking at this gives me the encouragement I need to go through my archives and collection to develop the content for the page. And of course, feel free to contact me here, via email or by visiting my Facebook or Instagram pages

An Australian souvenir from Operation CRIMP, South Vietnam, January 1966.

A selection of items related to the initial deployment of 1RAR to South Vietnam from May 1965 until April 1966 when they were attached to the US 173rd Airborne Brigade (Separate). The WW2 era Australian Military Forces lighter which has been modified with the addition of the enameled 173 Abn and Viet Cong badges was issued to Corporal Lex McAulay, who was with 1RAR during this time. Collection: Julian Tennant

A selection of items related to the initial deployment of 1RAR to South Vietnam during the period from May 1965 until April 1966 when they were attached to the US 173rd Airborne Brigade (Separate). The WW2 era Australian Military Forces lighter which has been modified with the addition of the enameled 17rd Airborne and Viet Cong badges was issued to Corporal Lex McAulay, who was serving as a linguist with 1RAR during this time. Collection: Julian Tennant

One of my collecting interests is Australian cigarette lighters from the Vietnam War. In recent years I have tended to reduce my focus to (predominantly) Zippo lighters related to the Australian Special Forces units and the Australian Army Training Team Vietnam (AATTV). However, I do still collect some that are from other units or have interesting provenance. This Australian Army issue lighter, which I obtained from noted military author and historian, Lex McAulay OAM, is one of those unique objects that makes collecting interesting.

Personalised WW2 period Australian Military Forces issue lighter carried Corporal Lex McAulay during his first tour of Vietnam with 1RAR in 1965. Collection: Julian Tennant

Personalised WW2 period Department of Defence issue Mark III  lighter carried by Corporal Lex McAulay during his first tour of Vietnam with the 1st Battalion Royal Australian Regiment in 1965-66. Collection: Julian Tennant

The marking’s on the lighter’s base indicate that it is the Department of Defence issue Mark III, which was one of the 96,000 made by the munitions factory in Footscray, Victoria, just before the end of WW2, in July 1945. These lighters continued to be issued to Australian servicemen for several years, including during the war in Vietnam. This personalised example is one of two lighters that I acquired from Lex, the other being a Korean copy of a Zippo (also shown below) which he picked up in Saigon during one of his later tours.

Bien Hoa, Vietnam. 1965-09. Two bare-chested Australians Corporal Lex McAulay (left) of Innisfail, Qld, and Corporal John Henderson of Macquarie Fields, NSW, inspect an Armalite rifle at the headquarters of the 1st Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment (1RAR). Photograph: Bryan Dunne. Australian War Memorial Accession Number DNE/65/0335A/VN

Bien Hoa, Vietnam. 1965-09. Two bare-chested Australians Corporal Lex McAulay (left) of Innisfail, Qld, and Corporal John Henderson of Macquarie Fields, NSW, inspect an Armalite rifle at the headquarters of the 1st Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment (1RAR). Photograph: Bryan Dunne. Australian War Memorial Accession Number DNE/65/0335A/VN

Lex McAulay joined the Australian Regular Army in June 1960 and trained as an infantryman. In 1962 he volunteered for language aptitude testing and was subsequently accepted to the RAAF School of Languages, where after completing a year-long Vietnamese language course, qualified as a Vietnamese linguist. Lex was subsequently posted to the 4th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment but when Australia committed ground combat troops to South Vietnam in April 1965, he was immediately transferred to the 1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (1RAR).

The battalion departed Australia in May 1965 and upon arrival in Vietnam was attached (as a third battalion) to the US 173rd Airborne Brigade (Separate) which was based at the Bien Hoa Airbase 25km North East of Saigon. 1RAR was initially restricted to operations protecting the airbase until, in September 1965, the Australian Government lifted these restrictions and the battalion was expanded to a battalion-group, with the addition of supporting artillery, engineers, aviation, medical and logistic elements. The battalion-group now began to undertake operations in the Viet Cong dominated areas of War Zones C, D and the Iron Triangle.

The battalion performed extremely well on operations with the American Brigade, most notably during Operation CRIMP in January 1966, when the Australians breached the extensive Cu Chi tunnel network. This operation is described in detail in the book, First to Fight, by Bob Breen and is also the main theme of Lex McAulay’s book, Blue Lanyard Red Banner. The US military policy of the time was to destroy tunnels and bunkers, but the Australian engineers of 3 Field Troop RAE began searching them, capturing large stocks of food, weapons, equipment and documents. It was during one of the tunnel clearances that the Viet Cong lapel badge that is attached to the lighter was discovered and in a note that Lex sent to me with the lighter, outlining its provenance, he writes,

During the operation, a small box, about the size of an old matchbox, was found in one of the tunnels being investigated by 1RAR soldiers. The matchbox was filled with these Vietcong badges. Corporal McAulay was the only linguist available to 1RAR for this operation and was responsible for sorting and sending back all captured items. His unofficial but personal policy was to send items of intelligence value back to higher headquarters but return everything else to the capturing sub-unit for use as souvenirs and keep the soldiers motivated to send captured items to him or other members of the battalion intelligence section.

McAulay goes on to note that he kept one badge and returned the rest to the platoon. The text on the Vietcong badge is: Mặt trận Dân tộc Giải phóng miền Nam Việt Nam which translates as South Vietnam People’s Liberation Front. The 173rd Airborne Brigade badge was acquired and attached by Lex sometime after the operation.

Viet Cong badge held in the Australian War Memorial collection of the same type to that affixed to Lex McAulay's lighter. The badge consists of a white enamel oval shape with 'MAI DAN TOC GIAI PHONG' written in raised brass lettering. In the top right of the badge is the Viet Cong flag, red over blue with a central yellow star in enamel. At the bottom of the badge is a red enamelled scroll with 'MIEN NAM VIET NAM' written in raised brass lettering. On the reverse of the badge is a pin and catch threaded into a small brass tube which has then been soldered onto the badge. This particular example was given to 213419 Lieutenant Alan George Hutchinson, a Royal Australian Artillery Forward Observer attached to the 1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (1 RAR) during Operation Crimp in January 1965. Is it possible that this badge came from the same matchbox of badges given to Lex McCaulay during the operation? Australian War Memorial Accession Number REL38058

Viet Cong badge held in the Australian War Memorial collection of the same type to that is affixed to Lex McAulay’s lighter. The badge consists of a white enamel oval shape with ‘MAI DAN TOC GIAI PHONG’ written in raised brass lettering. In the top right of the badge is the Viet Cong flag, red over blue with a central yellow star in enamel. At the bottom of the badge is a red enamelled scroll with ‘MIEN NAM VIET NAM’ written in raised brass lettering. On the reverse of the badge is a pin and catch threaded into a small brass tube which has then been soldered onto the badge. This particular example was given to 213419 Lieutenant Alan George Hutchinson, a Royal Australian Artillery Forward Observer attached to the 1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (1 RAR) during Operation CRIMP in January 1965. Is it possible that this badge came from the same box of badges given to Corporal Lex McAulay during the same operation? Australian War Memorial Accession Number REL38058

Corporal Lex McAulay, of 1st Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment (1RAR), holds the hand of an old man as he leads him to safety after a village had been cleared of the Viet Cong. Photograph: Michael Shannon. Australian War Memorial Accession Number SHA/65/0220/VN

Corporal Lex McAulay, of 1st Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment (1RAR), holds the hand of an old man as he leads him to safety after a village had been cleared of the Viet Cong. Photograph: Michael Shannon. Australian War Memorial Accession Number SHA/65/0220/VN

Whilst Operation CRIMP failed to achieve its objective of destroying the Communist Committee Headquarters that controlled all Viet Cong activity in the Capital Military District, the performance of the Australians in entering the tunnels, capturing valuable resources and intelligence information, led to a change in American policies and subsequently all American units throughout Vietnam were ordered to enter and clear tunnels before destroying them. The operation also highlighted the differences in doctrine and tactical principles between the Australians, who had brought years of counter-insurgency experience from Malaya with them and the Americans whose strategy was one of attrition, with ‘body counts’ being their measure of success. In 1966 as the allied build up in Vietnam grew, the Australian units were placed under direct Australian operational command with the formation of the 1st Australian Task Force in April 1966.

After completing a 12 month stint in Vietnam with 1RAR, Lex McAulay returned to Australia in 1966 and helped to set up a short colloquial Vietnamese course in Sydney. In late 1967, Lex went back to Vietnam as a staff member of the Military Attaché at the Australian Embassy in Saigon, returning in 1968. His final tour of duty in Vietnam was in 1970 where he eventually took charge of the Interrogation and Document Translation Section of the Australian field HQ. It was in Saigon during one of these later tours that he acquired the other lighter I acquired from him, a Korean ‘My-Lite’ copy of a Zippo lighter which features a Military Assistance Command Vietnam (MACV) badge on one side and the US Vietnam Service medal on the other.

Korean 'My-Lite' copy of the Zippo lighter which Lex McAulay bought in Saigon during one of his later deployments to Vietnam. Collection: Julian Tennant

Korean ‘My-Lite’ copy of the Zippo lighter which Lex McAulay bought in Saigon during one of his later deployments to Vietnam. Collection: Julian Tennant

Lex completed his third deployment to Vietnam in April 1971 and was preparing for a fourth tour when the Australian commitment ended. He remained in the Army until his retirement in 1982 and has subsequently authored several books related to military history as well as managing Banner Books, which specialises in Australian aviation and military studies. In 2007 Lex was awarded the Medal of the Order of Australia (OAM) for services to literature and as a military historian.

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The Pioneer Parachute Co. pin. Not a Caterpillar!

The Caterpillar Club, started in 1922 by Leslie Irvin’s Irving Air Chute Company, as a way of recording the names of individuals whose lives had been saved by using a parachute to make an emergency descent. Stanley Switlik, owner of the Switlik Parachute Co. saw the potential of the Caterpillar Club as a means to promote its parachutes and soon instituted their own, Switlik Caterpillar Club.

Other companies also adopted the idea, awarding their own ‘Caterpillar Club’ awards to people who had saved their lives using the manufacturer’s parachutes. This included the Pioneer Parachute Co., Inc. which was established in 1938 in Manchester, Connecticut as a subsidiary of the Cheney Brothers Mills, the world’s largest silk factory complex. Pioneer Parachute Co. was the result of a partnership with DuPont and the Army Air Force to develop a new parachutes and on June 6, 1942, parachute packer, Adeline Gray made the first jump by a human with a nylon parachute at Brainard Field in Hartford. Like the other manufacturers of the time, Pioneer had its own Caterpillar Club pin for emergency descents, which featured a gold caterpillar on a rectangle box filled with red, white and blue enamel.

Pioneer Parachute Co. Inc. Caterpillar Club membership badge. Collection: Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum.

Pioneer Parachute Co. Inc. Caterpillar Club membership badge. Collection: Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum.

The Pioneer Parachute Co. Inc. which has evolved into the Pioneer Aerospace Corporation and is now a subsidiary of Safran Electronics and Defense no longer issues it’s own Caterpillar Awards and membership is now administered by the Switlik Caterpillar Club. However, for several years there has been a badge made for Pioneer and bearing its name on the reverse which is often described as being a Pioneer Caterpillar Club award with collectors sometimes paying sizeable sums of money in order to add it to their collection.

The pin, which is made from nickel plated brass, shows a parachutist with a deployed parachute. It measures approximately 25mm (1”) in height and 18mm (11/16”) in width. The reverse features the words PIONEER PARACHUTE CO. and a single clutch pin grip attachment mechanism.

The Pioneer Parachute Co. Promotional pin for their revolutionary Para-Commander and Para-Sail canopy design. This was a promotional piece and should not be confused with the Caterpillar award badges. Collection: Julian Tennant

The Pioneer Parachute Co. Promotional pin for their revolutionary Para-Commander and Para-Sail canopy design. This was a promotional piece and should not be confused with the Caterpillar award badges. Collection: Julian Tennant

This Pioneer pin is not a Caterpillar Club award but is actually just a promotional pin made for another of Pioneer’s innovations developed in collaboration Parachutes Incorporated (PI), namely the Para-Commander (PC) and Para-Sail parachute. The design of the pin’s parachute reflected this new PC canopy, which was a modification to an ascending, 24-gore (segment) parachute designed by the Frenchman Pierre M. Lemoigne and sold to Pioneer in 1962. These pins were given to buyers of this new parachute rig.

The multiple segments used to construct the canopy was revolutionary for parachutes of the time. Increased manoeuvrability and glide were provided by a vented rear and turn slots supported by stabilising segments on the sides. The skirt of the leading edge of the canopy was also positioned slightly higher thereby decreasing the drag and allowing air to be directed rearward towards the slots.  The rate of descent was slowed further because a lower porosity nylon taffeta used which added to the lifting characteristics of the canopy design.

Diagram plan views of the Pioneer Para-Commander rig showing feature details. Several of these, then, revolutionary design features can be seen in the PIONEER PARACHUTE CO. pin.

Diagram plan views of the Pioneer Para-Commander rig showing feature details. Several of these, then, revolutionary design features can be seen in the PIONEER PARACHUTE CO. pin.

The PC was first demonstrated at the Orange Sport Parachute Centre in Massachusetts on the 4th of December 1962 and a patent (SN 159,606) filed on the 21st of December 1962. This new ‘high performance’ parachute quickly became popular and by 1966 they were being used by all the competitors in the US National Parachuting championships, with trials also underway for its adoption by the US military.

Page details from the June 1966 USAF "Performance Evaluation of Para-Commander Mark I Personal Parachute" report of 1st Lieutenant Charles W. Nichols of the Air Force Test Center at Edwards Air Force Base in California.

Page details from the June 1966 USAF “Performance Evaluation of Para-Commander Mark I Personal Parachute” report of 1st Lieutenant Charles W. Nichols of the Air Force Test Center at Edwards Air Force Base in California.

By the 1970’s rectangular canopied Ram-air parachutes, such as the Paraflite Para-Plane were starting to take over the sport parachuting market, although PC rigs were still used for trainee and military parachuting applications into the 1980’s.

The Pioneer PC pin was given to new buyers of the Para-Commander rig and whilst it is a memento reflecting an important development in the history of parachuting, collectors should not confuse the badge with the pins associated with membership of the Caterpillar Club.

Pioneer PC pin Jerry Irwin

American skydivers at a DZ in the 1960’s. Note the Pioneer PC pin being worn on the hat of the parachute rigger on the right. Photo: Jerry Irwin

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Australian Airborne Insignia #2. The 6RAR Parachute Company Group

6RAR Para Coy Gp. Exercise Distant Bridge - Painting by K. Wenzel, commissioned by Lt Col. A.L. Mattay and presented to the Battalion.

“Exercise Distant Bridge” – Painting by Ken Wenzel  and presented to 6RAR by Lt Col. A.L. Mattay, who was CO from January 1980 until December 1981. Exercise Distant Bridge was the first deployment by the 6RAR Para Coy Gp and the largest tactical air drop in Australia since WW2.

In 1974, the Brisbane based 6th Battalion Royal Australian Regiment (6RAR) under the command of Lt Col Tony Hammett took on an unofficial parachute role. At this time Australia had a special forces capability in the Special Air Service Regiment and the reservist Commando Companies, but no conventional airborne unit outside of the Airborne Platoon attached to the Parachute Training School. Hammett, who had been parachute qualified since 1959 encouraged soldiers of his battalion to undertake parachute training, but once qualified, they remained spread throughout the battalion. There were attempts in 1977 and 1978 to gain official parachute status but these were resisted until early in 1980 when the Enoggera based 6 Task Force was given approval to raise an airborne group based around an infantry rifle company.

Beret badges of 6RAR Para Coy Gp

Royal Australian Regiment (RAR) and the unofficial beret badge of the 6RAR Parachute Company Group. Approximately 150 of the unofficial beret badges were produced and presented to members of the company, but were never worn. The badge is die-struck with two clutch grip attachments and has a small ‘TAIWAN’ hallmark on the rear. Collection: Julian Tennant

Delta Company, 6RAR, which had achieved fame for its performance in the Battle of Long Tan in 1966, was selected for the task. Whilst remaining as Delta Company, it was now also officially called the 6RAR Parachute Company Group and by February 1981 had reached its target strength of 180 men. Shortly thereafter, on the 10th of April 1981, four C-130H Hercules aircraft from No. 36 Squadron flew 162 paratroopers from the company group 1600 kilometers from Amberley in Queensland to a DZ at an old WW2 airfield near Ross in Tasmania for Exercise DISTANT BRIDGE. This marked the the unit’s first full-scale deployment as an airborne force and the largest Australian tactical parachute drop since WW2.

Aust basic para pre 1998

Australian parachutist wings for summer (top) and winter dress (bottom) as worn by members of the 6RAR Parachute Company Group. Collection: Julian Tennant

Apart from the standard Australian Army parachutist badge, the paratroopers of the 6RAR Para Coy Gp did not wear any officially authorised insignia to distinguish the unit from other formations. However, the 2IC of the unit, Captain Richard ‘Dick’ Arnel did have insignia produced with the intention of having the design recognised as the official unit badge. The badge, featuring an upright SLR bayonet on a parachute with outstretched wings, over a scroll with the words “6RAR PRCHT COY GP” was produced as beret and collar badges, cuff links, tiepins, challenge coins as well as sports patches. About 150 sets of the beret and collar badges were made and issued to members of D Coy 6RAR but they were never worn. The cloth sports patches, which were made locally within Australia appear to have had production continued long after the demise of the unit and can still be found for sale in surplus stores and other retail outlets.

6RAR Para Coy Gp patch 3

Track suit / sports uniform patches of the 6RAR Parachute Company Group. The patch on the left, which has been removed from a uniform appears to be a modified variation of the patch on the right. I am not sure why the original owner may have carried out this modification. Collection: Julian Tennant

The raising of the 6RAR Parachute Company Group signaled the start of a standing conventional airborne capability for the Australian Army and led to formation of the larger battalion sized group when, in October 1983, the 3rd Battalion Royal Australian Regiment (3RAR) was designated a ‘Parachute Infantry Battalion’. Members of the 6RAR Para Coy Gp made one final jump near Amberley in Queensland before handing over the role and 3RAR formerly assumed the parachute role on the 1st of December 1983. 3RAR maintained the capability until 26th of August 2011, when it relinquished its airborne status and reverted to the role of a standard infantry battalion. Australia no longer has any conventional airborne units.

6RAR Para Coy Gp tie clip

Tie-clip made for members of the 6RAR Parachute Company Group. Collection: Julian Tennant

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The Southern Rhodesia Commando ‘Cobra’ Qualification badge – 1941 – 45

In 1941, fearing that the Japanese may launch an invasion of southern Africa from Vichy French controlled Madagascar, the OC of B Coy Rhodesian African Rifles, Captain Alan Gardiner Redfern was tasked with training a commando force of Rhodesians that could undertake guerrilla operations should an invasion occur.

Redfern was a good choice, a competent bushman who as a young school-boy had spent his weekends and school holidays camping out in the veldt with a native companion and carrying very little apart from a rifle, blanket some mealie meal (maize flour) and condensed milk. He was proficient in both the main African languages, Chishona and Sindebele and prior to the war worked in the Native Department (later renamed Internal Affairs) of the Southern Rhodesia Civil Service.

lrdg-southern-rhodesia-commando-redfern.jpg

Captain (T/Maj) Alan Gardiner Redfern MBE, founder of the Southern Rhodesia Commando. Redfern was KIA in November 1943 whilst commanding B Squadron of the Long Range Desert Group on operations in the Aegean.

Recruits for the Southern Rhodesia Commando were a mix of volunteers and conscripts, many of whom were drawn from the farming community and as such already well versed with living in the bush. The unit was conceived as a part-time cadre, not as a regular unit, able to work behind enemy lines should the need arise. Training occurred over an initial period of six weeks with an emphasis on bushcraft, small unit guerrilla operations and a demolitions course which was conducted near Gwelo. After the initial training, the soldiers returned to their usual occupations although regular on-going training took place.

Southern Rhodesia Commando

Sheet brass Southern Rhodesia Commando ‘Cobra’ badge awarded to successful participants of Redfern’s commando course. This badge was intended to be worn on the right shoulder sleeve, although photographs of Rhodesian LRDG members who completed the course show it being worn on the left shoulder sleeve. This badge is stamped with the serial number 229, but I do not know the identity of the original owner. Collection: Julian Tennant

The men who finally completed the course were awarded the ‘Cobra’ badge as recognition of their qualification. The badge depicts a cobra poised to strike within a circlet containing the words “Southern Rhodesia Commando”.  Each badge was individually numbered and were made from sheet brass by Keays Gold and Silversmiths in Salisbury.  The award was made in two sizes, the larger version, shown above, and worn on the uniform, plus a miniature silver lapel badge (also numbered) for wear on civilian attire. In an unpublished manuscript shown to me by fellow collector, Eric Crépin-Leblond, the uniform of the Southern Rhodesia Commando is described as follows,
The No. 1 Dress uniform for part-timers who successfully completed the course was: Bush hat, turned up on the left side, pinned with the Lion and tusk badge. Khaki bush shirt, with curved brass ‘Rhodesia’ shoulder titles; ‘cobra’ badge in brass worn on the right sleeve below the shoulder. ’04 web belt. Trousers. Veldschoen.

Rhodesia SRC mini

Miniature version of the Southern Rhodesia Commando qualification for wear on civilian shirt lapels. These badges were made from silver sheet and also individually numbered. This particular badge, number 120, was sold via auction in 2010 to an unidentified collector in Canada.

Little more is known about the Commando cadre and it is thought to have numbered less than 500 qualified members before it was disbanded in 1945. Many of the men from the Southern Rhodesia Commando subsequently volunteered to serve with the Long Range Desert Group (LRDG), forming S1 Patrol. On the nominal roll/database page of the the Long Range Desert Group Preservation Society  there is a small photo of Sergeant Hubert ‘Hughie’ Hein where he can be seen wearing the ‘Cobra’ badge on his left shoulder. I believe that this photo is also shown on page 110 in Craig Fourie and Jonathan Pittaway’s book LRDG Rhodesia but unfortunately I don’t have a copy to confirm if it is the same picture. Training with the Southern Rhodesia Commando is mentioned by some of the Rhodesian members of the LRDG in Pittaway’s subsequent book Long Range Desert Group Rhodesia: The Men Speak which also includes a picture of Signalman John “Fossie” Kevan who, once again is wearing his ‘Cobra’ on the left sleeve.  I can only surmise that the reason for the LRDG members wearing the badge on the left shoulder rather than the right as outlined in the original dress instruction, is because the same position on the right sleeve would have been reserved for their parachutist qualification wing. In both photographs it also appears that there was some kind of dark cloth used as a backing for badge but I have not yet identified the colour used.

LRDG Rhodesia Signalman John Kevan-Recovered

Rhodesian member of the Long Range Desert Group, Signalman John “Fossie” Kevan shown wearing the Southern Rhodesia Commando ‘Cobra’ badge on his left sleeve. Note the dark backing material used behind the badge. Source: Long Range Desert Group Rhodesia: The Men Speak. by Jonathan Pittaway.

For his role in forming the Southern Rhodesia Commando, Redfern was awarded the M.B.E., which he accepted with the understanding that he could join the men that he had trained who had subsequently joined the LRDG. On 22 April 1943, Captain Redfern transferred from the KRRC, reverting to the rank of 2nd Lieutenant before taking over command of S1 Patrol (LRDG) once again as a Captain in May 1943.  On October 15 he was made OC of B Squadron, but was killed in action on the 12th of November 1943 during LRDG operations in the Aegean.

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Note that this site has NEW content posted every Sunday! If you like what you see here, please follow this page via email or by using either the buttons below or in the column on the right. Knowing that somebody is looking at this gives me the encouragement I need to go through my archives and collection to develop the content for the page. And of course, feel free to contact me here, via email or by visiting my Facebook or Instagram pages