Albany’s Princess Royal Fortress and National ANZAC Centre

Albany, located 418km south-east of Perth, is the oldest colonial settlement in Western Australia. Established in 1826 it was originally settled as a military outpost for the colony of  New South Wales as part of their plan to halt French ambitions in the region. In 1893 the first Federal fort, the Princess Royal Fortress, was built on Mt Adelaide and the town was the last port of call for Australian troops departing for service in the First World War. During the Second World War it was home to an auxiliary submarine base for the US Navy’s 7th Fleet in the event that the primary base at Fremantle was lost to the Japanese. So, with a long weekend giving me some spare time, I decided to take a drive down to Albany to check out the Princess Royal Fortress and the National ANZAC Centre.

Albany Barracks museum

Albany Barracks Museum at the Princess Royal Fortress

Albany overlooks King George Sound, one of the world’s finest natural harbours and during the 19th century the Australian states realised that the loss of this strategic port could be disastrous not only to Western Australia but to all the colonies. As a result, all the states agreed to pay for the construction of a fort and the British Government would supply the guns. The Princess Royal Fortress was dug into the hillside of Mount Adelaide with two gun batteries – Fort Princess Royal (2 x 6 inch guns) and Fort Plantagenet (1 x 6 inch gun) at nearby Point King. Neither battery fired a shot in anger and in 1956 the Princess Royal Fortress was decommissioned; the buildings initially being used as a hostel and holiday camp before being redeveloped in the late 1980’s as a heritage site. The fortress is now home to a number of interesting military sites including the Albany Barracks and Princess Royal Battery, the National ANZAC Centre, HMAS Perth Museum Interpretive Centre, Navy Heritage trail, the South East Asia Memorial, US Submariners Memorial and the Merchant Navy Memorial.

6 inch gun at the Princess Royal Fort

6 inch gun at the Princess Royal Fort

Albany Barracks museum

Artillery uniforms, circa 1890’s

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Cap and jacket detail of an artillery officer of the Fortress Princess Royal battery circa 1890’s

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Albany Barracks Museum

6 inch gun at the Princess Royal Fort

6 inch gun at the Princess Royal Fort

Princess Royal Fortress Command Centre built in 1942.

Princess Royal Fortress Command Centre built in 1942.

HMAS Perth Museum

HMAS Perth Museum & Interpretive Centre

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HMAS Perth Museum

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Royal Australian Navy (DPCU) uniform worn by CMDR Michael Manfield who had previously commanded the submarine HMAS Waller. HMAS Waller was the third Collins Class submarine to enter service. It was named after Captain Hector “Hec” Waller, DSO and Bar of the HMAS Perth I which was lost during WW2. HMAS Waller’s patch, seen on the right shoulder, features the Stuart rose which references Captain Waller’s service on HMAS Stuart whilst the Oak Leaves represent Captain Waller’s three Mention In Despatches during his career. The field of black and blue signifies the night battles at sea during WW2 in which his flotilla was engaged. I am not sure why the curators decided to add the Chief Petty Officer’s rank slides to the uniform.

Bofors and other artillery pieces on the Navy Discovery trail

Bofors anti-aircraft gun and other artillery pieces on the Navy Discovery trail

USN Submariners Memorial

USN Submariners Memorial commemorating the WW2 submariners who remain on eternal patrol

Entry to all the museums and sites, with the exception of the National ANZAC Centre is free and are definitely worth a visit presenting some interesting pieces of memorabilia at the various buildings and displays.

The National ANZAC Centre was opened on the 1st of November 2014, a century after the first convoy of Australian and New Zealand troops departed from King George Sound, bound for the Great War. Visitors assume the identity of one of 32 servicemen who served in the war and follow their experience of the conflict from recruitment through active service to their return (for some). Their stories unfold through interactive displays, artefacts, photos, film and audio recordings. The content, curated from the Australian War Memorial and the Western Australian Museum, is interesting and engaging. A visit to the centre is definitely worth the Au$25 entry fee.

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The National ANZAC Centre with the USN Submariners Memorial in the foreground.

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National ANZAC Centre

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New Zealand and Australian uniforms at the National ANZAC Centre

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Ottoman identity disc, 1915. Official historian Charles Bean recovered three examples of these identity discs in the Lone Pine trench system in 1919. This example has been cut into a heart shape, possibly by its owner. Unfortunately the low light made it difficult to get a really clear image with my iphone.

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Foreign service helmet, Pattern 1902. Often referred to as the Wolsley or sun helmet, this example was worn on Gallipoli by Ballarat farmer Sergeant Cuthbert Stanley-Lowe of the 9th Light Horse. Stanley-Lowe was hospitalised on 15 June 1915 with ‘rheumatism and headaches’ caused by ‘exposure and strain in the trenches.’ He was evacuated to Lemnos and Egypt before being returned to Australia as medically unfit in early 1916.

National ANZAC Centre, Albany.

This British 1916 Mk 1 helmet was worn by Major General (later Lieutenant General) Sir Joseph Talbot Hobbs throughout his service on the Western Front. He has fixed an Australian rising sun badge to the front of his helmet. Major General Hobbs, commander of the 5th Australian Division, is best known for orchestrating the night attack on Villers-Bretonneaux on 24-25 April 1918, which recaptured the town.

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German helmet, gas-mask, wire cutters and pistol on display at the National ANZAC Centre

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Australian trench raiders clubs and revolver at the National ANZAC Centre

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Interactive display relating the stories of individual participants in the Great War at the National ANZAC Centre

Princess Royal Fortress

Forts Road, Albany, Western Australia 6330, Australia

Ph: +61 8 9841 9369
Open 0900 – 1700 every day except Christmas Day.

Admission is free to all areas and buildings except the National ANZAC Centre which costs Au$25 for adults, Au$21 concession, Au$11 for first child (5- 15 years old) and $Au6 for every child thereafter.

National ANZAC Centre:
Ph: +61 8  6820 3500

info@nationalanzaccentre.com.au
https://www.nationalanzaccentre.com.au

Photos of the Princess Royal Fortress during WW2
https://www.ozatwar.com/bunkers/princessroyalfortress.htm

Albany visitor sites:
http://albanyregion.com.au/anzac-history/
https://www.amazingalbany.com.au/category/anzac/

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EDITORIAL: Australian Chief of Army’s directive re use of ‘death’ symbols

In early April 2018, the Chief of Army, Lt. Gen. Angus Campbell, a former Australian SAS officer, released a memo requesting that the RSM of Army incorporate an instruction into the Army Dress Manual that banned the use of emblems that incorporated “death” symbols or iconography. These include Punisher skull or pirate Jolly Roger symbols both of which feature in the range of emblems and patches used by sub-units within the Australian Special Operations community… and no doubt are also features of various other Australian Army sub-unit logos.
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As can be expected there has been a backlash and ridicule from various interested parties. Many cite the unique task that society assigns to the military, the creep of political correctness and the role unit emblems play in fostering a sense of identity with its associated importance in team cohesion/bonding.
 
Personally, I agree with these arguments and am in favour of maintaining the existing traditions through the symbols that have already been adopted by the various sub-units.
 
However… and despite being an insignia collector with a particular interest in Australian Special Operations units, I have long held the belief that widespread use of troop, platoon, company and squadron patches within the Australian Special Operations community has gone too far and may not be a good thing for OpSec reasons.
 
The days of these logos being confined to beer stubby holders and PT shirts sold ‘in-house’ to raise funds for unit ‘pissups’ seems long gone… Back then, most people outside of the units had no idea who the sub-unit symbols represented and they were rarely, if ever seen in the public domain. So, maybe this directive will have some positive spin-offs, making the activities of our operators less visible through the identification of units through their patches and bring them back into the shadows where they belong.
 
From a collectors perspective, I wonder what effect the ruling will have? The Australian Army insignia collector market is already saturated with fakes and fantasy items. Since the early 2000’s collector/dealers have been capitalising on the wants of Australian collectors manufacturing ‘local made’ copies of known insignia plus, not infrequently, completely making shit up to sell to an eager and unsuspecting market. Will this move curtail their activities? Maybe… or maybe it is already too late and the genie is out of the bottle…. maybe it will just lead to new batches of ‘rare unofficial’ patches for units that have no knowledge of these patches existence and collectors who have few points of reference to determine what is real and what is bullshit. Time will tell I guess.
fantasy miltrader Aussie CDO fakes

FAKE/FANTASY Australian Special Operations unit insignia made to fool unsuspecting collectors. Not sure what drugs the manufacturer has been taking to come up with these designs, but they are figments of his imagination. Unfortunately, some collectors continue to be fooled by this bullshit.

REFERENCE BOOK: Metal Uniform Embellishments of the Australian Army – Post 53 (‘QE II series’) – Volumes 1 & 2

butler cocoran badge book vol1and2

Metal Uniform Embellishments of the Australian Army – Post 53 (‘QE II series’) volumes 1 & 2 by Mark Corcoran and Arthur Butler

A4 size softcover, ring spiral binding on both books, 312 and 236 pages respectively

Published by CharlieBravoBooks, Brisbane (2017)

ISBN: 9780994199355 and 9780994199348

Arthur Butler and Mark Corcoran’s two volume set catalogue the metal insignia used by the Australian Army from 1953 until the present day. Volume 1 covers all Corps and school insignia and volume 2 deals with specific units and regiments.

Both are well laid out, dealing with manufacturers, notes on evaluating individual specimens as well as full colour photographs that include full size obverse and reverse images as well as close up details of key features when appropriate.

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The insignia are broken down into three distinct ‘generations’, including the: gilt brass and white metal badges used between 1953 to 1964; the anodized aluminium ‘Staybright’ badges that were introduced from 1964; and the more recent ‘Briteshine’ insignia adopted from 1997 onward.

The colour photographs are complimented by detailed text, which includes information regarding distinguishing characteristics, dimensions, weight makers marks and attachment details.

butler cocoran badge book vol2 SOLS

Additional notes such as details of key events that influenced the evolution or use of the insignia are also included, as is a very useful chapter which provides detailed information about the numerous fakes, reproductions and ‘Regi shop’ private purchase items.

butler cocoran badge book evaluation

Overall, the authors, who are both collectors, have done an outstanding job of researching and presenting a reference with the collector in mind. In addition to the two volumes, their website provides additional information, such as video links outlining casting techniques used in the manufacture of badges and discussion about specific insignia.

I suggest that you bookmark their page and if you are an Australian or British Commonwealth insignia collector, these two books are an absolute must for your reference library.

 

The Spirit of Anzac Centenary Experience. Perth 29 November – 11 December 2016

Spirit of ANZAC Centenary exchibition. Perth 2016

The Spirit of ANZAC Centenary Experience. Perth December 2016

Spirit of ANZAC Centenary exchibition. Perth 2016

The Spirit of ANZAC Centenary Experience. Perth December 2016

The Spirit of Anzac Centenary Experience is a traveling exhibition that mainly tells the story of Australia’s involvement in the First World War, but also has some additional information about the Australian armed forces involvement in subsequent operations. The latter is restricted to information panels, videos and here in Perth, a Bushmaster provided by one of the local Army Reserve units, the 10th Light Horse.

Spirit of ANZAC Centenary exchibition. Perth 2016

The Spirit of ANZAC Centenary Experience. Perth December 2016. 10 Light Horse Regiment Bushmaster and the Cottesloe Surf Life Saving Club rowboat which was used in by the club as part of the centenary commemoration at Gallipoli on Anzac day in 2015.

The bulk of the displays follow a chronological timeline spanning the period just before the outbreak of World War 1 until armistice in 1918, with visitors using an audio guide, which provides contextual information to supplement the items on display.

Spirit of ANZAC Centenary exchibition. Perth 2016

The Spirit of ANZAC Centenary Experience. Perth December 2016

Spirit of ANZAC Centenary exchibition. Perth 2016

The Spirit of ANZAC Centenary Experience. Perth December 2016

As can be expected with a traveling exhibition aimed at a general audience, the bulk of the stuff being presented consists of photographs, ephemera and didactic information panels along with (mostly) smaller items that are easy to transport and display. The exhibits are well displayed though and visitors pass through trench-like passageways as they move from one section to the next.  For Western Australian leg of the tour most of the items originate from the Australian War Memorial collection but also include artifacts from the Army Museum of Western Australia as each stage of the tour includes a local ‘flavour’ curating stories from the area visited.

Spirit of ANZAC Centenary exchibition. Perth 2016

The Spirit of ANZAC Centenary Experience. Perth December 2016. Australian uniform from the Dardanelles campaign

Spirit of ANZAC Centenary exchibition. Perth 2016

The Spirit of ANZAC Centenary Experience. Perth December 2016. Turkish soldier’s uniform from the Dardanelles campaign.

Spirit of ANZAC Centenary exchibition. Perth 2016

The Spirit of ANZAC Centenary Experience. Perth December 2016

Entry is free, although bookings have to be made prior to visiting and entry is controlled to ensure that all attendees have an audio guide. The audio is quite good providing context and automatically updating to reflect where ever the visitor is standing at any given point during their visit. It also provides for an option to have additional information about certain exhibits sent via email should something be of interest.

Spirit of ANZAC Centenary exchibition. Perth 2016

The Spirit of ANZAC Centenary Experience. Perth December 2016. Australian Flying Corps pilot in the Middle East. Most of the mannequin displays feature reproduction uniforms, which is understandable given the nature of the exhibition and display. Unfortunately this particular jacket features a really bad reproduction of the AFC pilot’s wing which is also sold as a souvenir in the AWM and RAAF Museum shops.

Spirit of ANZAC Centenary exchibition. Perth 2016

The Spirit of ANZAC Centenary Experience. Perth December 2016. Brass grave plaque and portrait of the Red Baron’s only Australian victim. Second Lieutenant Jack Hay was flying an outdated FE8 pusher biplane with No. 40 Squadron, RFC when he encountered Baron Von Richthofen’s squadron on 23 January 1917. Hay’s aircraft burst into flames and rather than burn, Hay jumped to his death. His mates made this plaque for his grave.

Overall, whilst I was slightly disappointed by the lack of post WW1 display items, it was quite an enjoyable visit and I think that I will drop by again for another look before the show moves to its next location.

Spirit of ANZAC Centenary exchibition. Perth 2016

The Spirit of ANZAC Centenary Experience. Perth December 2016. German 170mm Minenwerfer trench mortar.

Spirit of ANZAC Centenary exchibition. Perth 2016

The Spirit of ANZAC Centenary Experience. Perth December 2016. Ouch!

Spirit of ANZAC Centenary exchibition. Perth 2016

The Spirit of ANZAC Centenary Experience. Perth December 2016.

Spirit of ANZAC Centenary exchibition. Perth 2016

The Spirit of ANZAC Centenary Experience. Perth December 2016. Anti-conscription badge from the 1916 and 1917 conscription referendums. Australians rejected the notion of conscription and the AIF remained an all volunteer fighting force.

Spirit of ANZAC Centenary exchibition. Perth 2016

The Spirit of ANZAC Centenary Experience. Perth December 2016.

Spirit of ANZAC Centenary exchibition. Perth 2016

The Spirit of ANZAC Centenary Experience. Perth December 2016. Reproduction of a British MkIV ‘Male’ tank.

The Spirit of Anzac Centenary Experience is on display at the Perth Convention & Exhibition Centre until 11 December 2016.

Touring dates and visitor information for the exhibition can be found at http://www.anzaccentenary.gov.au/events/spirit-anzac-centenary-experience

Melbourne’s Shrine of Remembrance galleries

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1 Commando Regiment beret belonging to Private Greg Sher, KIA during a rocket attack in Uruzgan Province, Afghanistan 04 January 2009.

I’ve just returned from a weekend trip to Melbourne and on Sunday afternoon, just before heading to the airport I found that I had a couple of hours to kill whilst ‘she who must be obeyed’ spent some time with her sister. I was at Flinders street station so decided to take a walk down St Kilda Road to the Shrine of Remembrance. The walk takes about 10 to 15 minutes and is quite a pleasant stroll, but in retrospect I should have taken the 5 minute tram ride (‘Stop 19 – Shrine of Remembrance’) as it would have given me more time to explore the new Galleries of Remembrance which were still under development last time I visited, back in mid 2014. But, it was a spur of the moment decision and whilst I regret not having more time to look at the exhibits it gave me a taster for my next visit.

 

The Eternal Flame near the footsteps of Victoria's Shrine of Remembrance.

The Eternal Flame near the footsteps of Victoria’s Shrine of Remembrance.

Built in 1934, the Shrine is the Victorian state war memorial. It was built to help a grieving Victorian community which lost 19,000 of it’s 114,000 enlistees killed in the First World War. They were buried in distant graves at a time when most Australians did not travel abroad. The Shrine provided a place where Victorians could share their individual and collective grief for the lives that they had lost. Designed by architects Phillip Hudson and James Wardrop, both World War 1 veterans, it is located in Kings Domain on St Kilda Road and was opened on the 11th of November 1934.
The Galleries of Remembrance were opened to the public on 11 November 2014. It utilizes 1600 square meters in a cathedral-like chamber beneath the Shrine and exhibits over 800 items illustrating the Australian experience of war from the 1850’s until the present day. Because of the time limitations I had, I did not go into the Shrine itself this time, but instead opted to check out these displays. Unfortunately the picture quality isn’t the greatest as they were just snapped on my iphone, but they will give you an idea of what is on the display.

Ballarat Rangers Helmet c.1880 in the Pre-Federation Gallery.

Ballarat Rangers Helmet c.1880 in the Pre-Federation Gallery. This helmet is a rare example of the type worn with the distinctive green uniform of the Ballarat Rangers. Formed on 26th July 1858, the unit was originally known as the Ballarat Volunteer Rifle Regiment but changed its name a month later.

Gallipoli landing lifeboat in the First World War Gallery.

Gallipoli landing lifeboat in the First World War Gallery. Lifeboat No. 5 landed on Gallipoli on 25 April 1915 at around 4.10 am. The lifeboat carried men of the 12th Battalion, the 3rd Field Ambulance and the 3rd Infantry Brigade Headquarters

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Australian Flying Corps pilot’s brevet with officers pips and farriers trade badge in the AFC and 4th Light Horse display in the First World War Gallery.

WW1 Aviators helmet, goggles and jacket in the First World War G

WW1 Aviators helmet, goggles and jacket in the First World War Gallery.

Australian uniform as worn on the Western Front circa 1917.

Australian uniform as worn on the Western Front circa 1917.

First Word War Gallery display.

First Word War Gallery display.

Italian, German and French uniforms in the Second World War Gall

Italian, German and French uniforms in the Second World War Gallery

Australian Kokoda / New Guinea display in the Second World War G

Australian Kokoda / New Guinea display in the Second World War Gallery.

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Shirt worn by Alf Argent (3RAR) as part of the 28th Commonwealth Infantry Brigade, Malaya c. 1960.

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Viet Cong embroidered propaganda pendant of Ho Chi Minh in the “1966 The year that changed the world” temporary exhibition.

'Khats' by George Gittoes (March 1993)

‘Khats’ by George Gittoes (March 1993). Australian artist George Gittoes spent time in Somalia with the 1st Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment (1RAR). He accompanied soldiers from 1RAR on night patrols in Baidoa and was fascinated by their electronic night vision goggles. He observed that; “People through their goggles lose their humanity… it is like playing a virtual reality game…” Meanwhile a local man experiences his own state of altered reality by chewing the stimulant plant, khat.

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Plaque from Rwanda c. 1995 presented to WO2 Robert Burgess (UNAMIR II) and UNTAC (Cambodia) patches collected by Private David Jess in 1993.

Australian patches related to Iraq 2003 - 2008.

Australian patches related to the Iraq deployments 2003 – 2008.

Afghanistan & Iraq gallery.

Afghanistan & Iraq gallery.

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Disruptive Pattern Desert Uniform (DPDU) shirt worn by Sgt Ricky Morris whilst serving as an engineer in Afghanistan from 2008 to 2009.

The Shrine of Remembrance is located on Birdwood Avenue and St Kilda Road, 1.3km from Flinders Street Railway Station. It can be reached by a nice 10 minute walk or by any St Kilda road south bound tram except route number 1. Disembark at tram stop 19 or the Domain Road interchange. If you are using the Melbourne Visitor Shuttle bus, disembark at Stop 13.

Admission is free and it is open from 10:00 until 17:00 (last entry 16:30) everyday except Good Friday and Christmas Day.  For more information visit the Shrine of Remembrance website here.

Australian ANZAC Day Iraq 2016 patch

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Close up of an Australian helmet featuring the Taji ANZAC Day Iraq 2016 patch at the dawn service held at the Taji Military Complex, Iraq. 25 April 2016. Picture by Cpl Jake Sims (ADF)

On 25 April 2016, Australian and New Zealand Defence Force personnel deployed to Iraq with Task Group Taji commemorated the Task Group’s first Anzac Day at the Taji Military Complex, Iraq. This year’s Anzac day marks the 100th anniversary since the first Anzac Day service in 1916. To commemorate the day a special one-off patch was produced by a Sydney based company for the troops serving with Task Group Taji.

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Australian Army soldier Private Andrew Lawrence from Task Group Taji commemorates Anzac Day at the Taji Military Complex, Iraq. The ANZAC Day Iraq 2016 patch can be seen on the helmet and the issue Task Group Taji patch is visible on his right shoulder. Picture by Cpl Jake Sims (ADF) 

Task Group Taji ANZAC Day 2016 patch

ANZAC Day Iraq 2016 patch produced for  the first ANZAC Day commemoration service at the Taji Military Complex in Iraq.

Personnel from Australia and New Zealand based at the Taji Military Complex in Iraq are part of the broader international Building Partner Capacity (BPC) mission training members of the Iraqi security forces. The training includes weapon handling, building clearances and obstacle breaching techniques; as well as training in the Tactics, Techniques and Procedures for squad through to company-level operations to use in their fight against Daesh.

Task Group Taji 2016 patch

General issue, Australian manufactured, Task Group Taji patch worn by Australian & New Zealand personnel serving with the Task Group as part of the mission designated Operation OKRA by the Australian Defence Force.

Task Group Taji’s BPC contribution is part of Australia’s broader Defence contribution to Iraq, codenamed Operation OKRA, which includes a Special Operations Task Group and an Air Task Group.

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Australian Army soldier Private Andrew Lawrence from Task Group Taji commemorates Anzac Day at the Taji Military Complex, Iraq. 25 April 2016.  Picture by Cpl Jake Sims (ADF)

REFERENCE BOOK: NEW ZEALAND ARMY DISTINGUISHING PATCHES 1911-1991. Volumes One and Two by Malcolm Thomas and Cliff Lord

New Zealand Army Distinguishing Patches 1911-1991

NEW ZEALAND ARMY DISTINGUISHING PATCHES 1911-1991. Volumes One and Two
Malcolm Thomas and Cliff Lord
ISBN0473032902
Published by: Malcolm Thomas and Cliff Lord, Wellington, 1995.
Softback. 176 + 148 pages respectively.

 
These two invaluable reference books were published in 1995 and are long out of print, but if you can find copies, definitely add them to your reference library. The two volumes present descriptions and photographs of the uniform and insignia of various branches of the Army including Nurses and Women’s Auxiliary service, UN peacekeepers, Pacific Island forces, Home Guard, School cadets etc.

Part One concentrates on the development of the New Zealand Army and shows the various formations and their distinguishing patches. Included are chapters on the military forces of Fiji and Tonga during the Second World War and also wartime auxiliary organisations such as the New Zealand Red Cross.

Part Two shows the badges and insignia that were worn by the New Zealand Army at the time of writing (1991) including the different Orders of Dress, unit distinctions and insignia of the New Zealand Cadet Corps.