Operation Market Garden: Arnhem Oorlogsmuseum 40-45

Some of the military vehicles on display at the Arnhem Oorlogsmuseum. Photo: Julian Tennant

Military vehicles on display at the Arnhem Oorlogsmuseum 40-45. Photo: Julian Tennant

Arnhem oorlogsmuseum Arnhem war museum

Parachute Regiment beret. The caption indicated that this beret belonged to a dead British para and was found in Hartenstein, site of the British HQ. Arnhem Oorlogsmuseum. Photo: Julian Tennant

Like the Glider Collection Wolfheze, the Arnhem Oorlogsmuseum (sometimes referred to in English language search engines as the Arnhem War Museum) is another private museum in the Arnhem area.

Owner Eef Peeters started collecting militaria as a boy, storing his collection at first in his home, followed by a shed and then finally, in 1994, moving the collection to its current location, an old school, in Schaarsbergen. The collection does not focus specifically on Operation Market Garden but paints a much broader picture of what happened in Arnhem and the surrounding areas during the war years. This includes a number of objects relating to less popular subjects including collaboration and the Dutch Nazi Party, the Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging in Nederland (NSB).

This is an old-style museum concentrating on artifacts, rather than interactive displays. It’s a fascinating and at times eclectic collection of items squeezed into the available space. A lot of the memorabilia is not captioned in English, so I had to rely on my rusty Afrikaans/Dutch skills to interpret some of the captions, but the staff were helpful and friendly. When one of the volunteer staff members found out that I was a collector, after I asked if there were any antique or shops around which may have militaria for sale, he invited me into the office to show me some of the original items that were available for sale to help fund the museum upkeep. But, whilst I was tempted by a couple of period Dutch National Socialist badges, I decided that I had better try to maintain focus on my airborne interest and left empty handed.

Arnhem Oorlogsmuseum 40-45. Arnhem War Museum 40-45.

Display featuring uniforms worn by soldiers of the 49th (West Riding) Infantry Division, nicknamed “The Polar Bear Butchers” after their shoulder sleeve formation sign and a 6 lb anti-tank gun as used by the 1st Air Landing Anti-Tank Battery during the battle for Arnhem. Photo: Julian Tennant

If you have a car, Arnhem Oorlogsmuseum is about 10 minutes drive from central Arnhem or if you are using public transport can be reached in under half an hour via the #9 bus departing from near Arnhem Centraal train station.

Arnhems Oorlogsmuseum 40-45

Kemperbergerweg 780
6816 RX Arnhem

Telephone: +31 (0) 26 4420958

https://www.arnhemsoorlogsmuseum.com

Opening hours:

The museum is open from Tuesday to Sunday from 10:00 until 17:00, however the ticket office closes at 16:30 hrs.

Admission prices:

Adults: € 9.00
Children up to 4 years old:  free
Children 5 to 12 years old:  € 7.00,-
Adults 65+: € 7.00

Note that there is no ATM at the museum, and they do not accept credit cards.

Arnhem Oorlogsmuseum 40-45. Arnhem War Museum. Photo: Julian Tennant

A T34-85 and Flak gun at the front of the Arnhem Oorlogsmuseum 40-45. Photo: Julian Tennant

Venice’s Naval History Museum – Museo Storico Navale

Established by the Regina Marina (Italian Royal Navy) in 1919, the Museo Storico Navale is located in the Castello district, near the Venetian Arsenal. The city state of Venice was built on the back of its naval might and at its peak, the Arsenale di Venezia (Venetian Arsenal) could produce a fully operational warship in 24 hours, so a visit to this lesser known museum is a must for anybody interested in the broader context of Venetian history as well as those with specific military related interests.

Museo Historico Naval - Venice.

The museum collection covers the maritime history of Venice and the Italian navy. It is divided between two locations about 100m apart. The bulk of the collection, including weapons, uniforms and an impressive collection of model ships is located on the waterfront. Around the corner is the Padiglione delle Navi, a series of sheds that was built in 1577 as an oars workshop and now known as the Ships Pavilion, housing larger vessels and artifacts.

The main museum building has 42 exhibition rooms spread over 5 levels and covers both naval and civilian maritime histories. Near the entrance is a WW2 era “Maiale” (Pig) SLC piloted torpedo used by the naval commandos of Xª MAS and as my collecting interest is focused on special operations units, I was pleasantly surprised by the number of items related to this unit on display.

Museo Historico Naval - Venice.

SLC or slow-running torpedo, nicknamed “Maiale” (Pig) was manned torpedo submarine used by the commando-divers of X-MAS (Decima Flottiglia MAS) of the Royal Italian Navy during WW2.

Museo Historico Naval - Venice.

Diving equipment used by the underwater assault craft operators from X-MAS (Decima Flottiglia MAS) of the Royal Italian Navy during WW2. This equipment was made in 1941 and used by the “Gamma” Teams in actions off Gibraltar and Algeria during World War 2. It consists of a rubber suit, a respirator using oxygen from a tank which is renewed by the soda lime ash in the bag on the chest, mouthpiece and face mask

The Decima Flottiglia Motoscafi Armati Siluranti, also known as Xª MAS or X-MAS was an Italian commando frogman unit of the Regia Marina created during the Fascist regime. The acronym MAS refers to various light torpedo boats used by the Regia Marina during World War I and World War II.

 Xª MAS evolved out of the world’s first special forces frogman unit, the 1ª Flottiglia Mezzi d’Assalto (“First Assault Vehicle Flotilla”) which had been formed in 1939. In 1941, the re-designated unit was divided into two parts – a surface group operating fast explosive motor boats, and a sub-surface weapons group using manned torpedoes called SLC (siluri a lenta corsa or “slow-running torpedoes”, but nicknamed Maiale or “Pig” by their crews), as well as “Gamma” assault swimmers (nuotatori) using limpet mines. During its operations, the unit destroyed 72,190 tons of Allied warships and 130,572 tons of Allied merchant ships and resulted in the Royal Navy developing similar capabilities.

Following the armistice of Italy on September 8, 1943, the Xª MAS was disbanded with some of its sailors joining the Allies to fight the Germans. In the German occupied north of Italy, Mussolini set up the Italian Social Republic (RSI) to continue the war and under the command of Junio Valerio Borghese also known as Il Principe Nero (The Black Prince), Decima Flottiglia was revived. By the end of the war it had over 18 000 members and had a reputation as hard core pro-fascist unit, operating in anti-resistance campaigns under the command of Waffen SS Obergruppenführer Karl Wolff, supreme commander of SS forces in Italy.

Examining the watercraft and uniforms used by the sailors of  Xª MAS was the real highlight of the museum for me. But there is lots to see here and it is easy to lose track of time. I spent at least 4 hours in the main building before even reaching the Ships Pavilion, so if this kind of stuff interests you, arrive early and give yourself plenty of time.

Museo Historico Naval - Venice.

Some of the uniforms on display. The jacket on the left was used by the Italian State circa 1790. The Jacket and waistcoat on the right was used by the Venetian Navy during the same period.

 

Museo Historico Naval - Venice.

Model of a CB type Coastal Submarine (1940 – 1945)

Venice Naval Historical Museum

Riva San Biagio Castello 2148,

Venice Ships Pavilion

Rio della Tana Castello 2162 c, Venice (close to the Arsenal bridge)

How to get there:

Vaporetto ACTV: Line 1, 4.1, 4.2 stop Arsenale

Opening Hours:

The Venice Naval Historical Museum is open every day

  • 1 April – 31 October: from 10 am to 6 pm (last admission 5 pm)
  • 1 November – 31 March: from 10 am to 5 pm (last admission 4 pm)

The Ships Pavilion is open every day

  • 1 April – 31 October: from 11 am to 6 pm (last admission 5 pm)
  • 1 November – 31 March: from 11 am to 5 pm (last admission 4 pm)

https://www.visitmuve.it/en/museums/naval-historical-museum/

museo historico navale Borghese-11

This submarine is not related to the museum, but I discovered it whilst wandering around the area. It is the ‘Enrico Dandolo’ (SSK 513), which was the third submarine of the Toti class that the Italian Navy built in the 1960’s. This one was decommissioned in 1996. Unfortunately it is on the Navy base which continues to occupy a lot of the Arsenale region and had restricted access, so I could not get any closer to examine it in detail.

Albany’s Princess Royal Fortress and National Anzac Centre

Albany, located 418km south-east of Perth, is the oldest colonial settlement in Western Australia. Established in 1826 it was originally settled as a military outpost for the colony of  New South Wales as part of their plan to halt French ambitions in the region. In 1893 the first Federal fort, the Princess Royal Fortress, was built on Mt Adelaide and the town was the last port of call for Australian troops departing for service in the First World War. During the Second World War it was home to an auxiliary submarine base for the US Navy’s 7th Fleet in the event that the primary base at Fremantle was lost to the Japanese. So, with a long weekend giving me some spare time, I decided to take a drive down to Albany to check out the Princess Royal Fortress and the National Anzac Centre.

Albany Barracks museum

Albany Barracks Museum at the Princess Royal Fortress

Albany overlooks King George Sound, one of the world’s finest natural harbours and during the 19th century the Australian states realised that the loss of this strategic port could be disastrous not only to Western Australia but to all the colonies. As a result, all the states agreed to pay for the construction of a fort and the British Government would supply the guns. The Princess Royal Fortress was dug into the hillside of Mount Adelaide with two gun batteries – Fort Princess Royal (2 x 6 inch guns) and Fort Plantagenet (1 x 6 inch gun) at nearby Point King. Neither battery fired a shot in anger and in 1956 the Princess Royal Fortress was decommissioned; the buildings initially being used as a hostel and holiday camp before being redeveloped in the late 1980’s as a heritage site. The fortress is now home to a number of interesting military sites including the Albany Barracks and Princess Royal Battery, the National Anzac Centre, HMAS Perth Museum Interpretive Centre, Navy Heritage trail, the South East Asia Memorial, US Submariners Memorial and the Merchant Navy Memorial.

6 inch gun at the Princess Royal Fort

6 inch gun at the Princess Royal Fort

Albany Barracks museum

Artillery uniforms, circa 1890’s

albany fort princess royal ANZAC centre-04

Cap and jacket detail of an artillery officer of the Fortress Princess Royal battery circa 1890’s

albany fort princess royal ANZAC centre-05

Albany Barracks Museum

6 inch gun at the Princess Royal Fort

6 inch gun at the Princess Royal Fort

Princess Royal Fortress Command Centre built in 1942.

Princess Royal Fortress Command Centre built in 1942.

HMAS Perth Museum

HMAS Perth Museum & Interpretive Centre

albany fort princess royal ANZAC centre-09

HMAS Perth Museum

albany fort princess royal ANZAC centre-10

Royal Australian Navy (DPCU) uniform worn by CMDR Michael Manfield who had previously commanded the submarine HMAS Waller. HMAS Waller was the third Collins Class submarine to enter service. It was named after Captain Hector “Hec” Waller, DSO and Bar of the HMAS Perth I which was lost during WW2. HMAS Waller’s patch, seen on the right shoulder (and actually upside down on the uniform), features the Stuart rose which references Captain Waller’s service on HMAS Stuart whilst the Oak Leaves represent Captain Waller’s three Mention In Despatches during his career. The field of black and blue signifies the night battles at sea during WW2 in which his flotilla was engaged. I am not sure why the curators decided to add the Chief Petty Officer’s rank slides to the uniform or why the HMAS Waller patch is upside down… Curator must have been on the rum.

Bofors and other artillery pieces on the Navy Discovery trail

Bofors anti-aircraft gun and other artillery pieces on the Navy Discovery trail

USN Submariners Memorial

USN Submariners Memorial commemorating the WW2 submariners who remain on eternal patrol

Entry to all the museums and sites, with the exception of the National Anzac Centre is free and are definitely worth a visit presenting some interesting pieces of memorabilia at the various buildings and displays.

The National Anzac Centre was opened on the 1st of November 2014, a century after the first convoy of Australian and New Zealand troops departed from King George Sound, bound for the Great War. Visitors assume the identity of one of 32 servicemen who served in the war and follow their experience of the conflict from recruitment through active service to their return (for some). Their stories unfold through interactive displays, artefacts, photos, film and audio recordings. The content, curated from the Australian War Memorial and the Western Australian Museum, is interesting and engaging. A visit to the centre is definitely worth the Au$25 entry fee.

albany fort princess royal ANZAC centre-12

The National Anzac Centre with the USN Submariners Memorial in the foreground.

albany fort princess royal ANZAC centre-13

National Anzac Centre

albany fort princess royal ANZAC centre-14

New Zealand and Australian uniforms at the National Anzac Centre

albany fort princess royal ANZAC centre-15

Ottoman identity disc, 1915. Official historian Charles Bean recovered three examples of these identity discs in the Lone Pine trench system in 1919. This example has been cut into a heart shape, possibly by its owner. Unfortunately the low light made it difficult to get a really clear image with my iphone.

albany fort princess royal ANZAC centre-16

Foreign service helmet, Pattern 1902. Often referred to as the Wolsley or sun helmet, this example was worn on Gallipoli by Ballarat farmer Sergeant Cuthbert Stanley-Lowe of the 9th Light Horse. Stanley-Lowe was hospitalised on 15 June 1915 with ‘rheumatism and headaches’ caused by ‘exposure and strain in the trenches.’ He was evacuated to Lemnos and Egypt before being returned to Australia as medically unfit in early 1916.

National ANZAC Centre, Albany.

This British 1916 Mk 1 helmet was worn by Major General (later Lieutenant General) Sir Joseph Talbot Hobbs throughout his service on the Western Front. He has fixed an Australian rising sun badge to the front of his helmet. Major General Hobbs, commander of the 5th Australian Division, is best known for orchestrating the night attack on Villers-Bretonneaux on 24-25 April 1918, which recaptured the town.

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German helmet, gas-mask, wire cutters and pistol on display at the National Anzac Centre

albany fort princess royal ANZAC centre-19

Australian trench raiders clubs and revolver at the National Anzac Centre

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Interactive display relating the stories of individual participants in the Great War at the National Anzac Centre

Princess Royal Fortress

Forts Road, Albany, Western Australia 6330, Australia                                                                   Ph: +61 8 9841 9369
Open 0900 – 1700 every day except Christmas Day.

Admission is free to all areas and buildings except the National ANZAC Centre which costs Au$25 for adults, Au$21 concession, Au$11 for first child (5- 15 years old) and $Au6 for every child thereafter.

National Anzac Centre:
Ph: +61 8  6820 3500

info@nationalanzaccentre.com.au
https://www.nationalanzaccentre.com.au

Photos of the Princess Royal Fortress during WW2
https://www.ozatwar.com/bunkers/princessroyalfortress.htm

Albany visitor sites:
http://albanyregion.com.au/anzac-history/
https://www.amazingalbany.com.au/category/anzac/