The Pioneer Parachute Co. pin. Not a Caterpillar!

The Caterpillar Club, started in 1922 by Leslie Irvin’s Irving Air Chute Company, as a way of recording the names of individuals whose lives had been saved by using a parachute to make an emergency descent. Stanley Switlik, owner of the Switlik Parachute Co. saw the potential of the Caterpillar Club as a means to promote its parachutes and soon instituted their own, Switlik Caterpillar Club.

Other companies also adopted the idea, awarding their own ‘Caterpillar Club’ awards to people who had saved their lives using the manufacturer’s parachutes. This included the Pioneer Parachute Co., Inc. which was established in 1938 in Manchester, Connecticut as a subsidiary of the Cheney Brothers Mills, the world’s largest silk factory complex. Pioneer Parachute Co. was the result of a partnership with DuPont and the Army Air Force to develop a new parachutes and on June 6, 1942, parachute packer, Adeline Gray made the first jump by a human with a nylon parachute at Brainard Field in Hartford. Like the other manufacturers of the time, Pioneer had its own Caterpillar Club pin for emergency descents, which featured a gold caterpillar on a rectangle box filled with red, white and blue enamel.

Pioneer Parachute Co. Inc. Caterpillar Club membership badge. Collection: Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum.

Pioneer Parachute Co. Inc. Caterpillar Club membership badge. Collection: Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum.

The Pioneer Parachute Co. Inc. which has evolved into the Pioneer Aerospace Corporation and is now a subsidiary of Safran Electronics and Defense no longer issues it’s own Caterpillar Awards and membership is now administered by the Switlik Caterpillar Club. However, for several years there has been a badge made for Pioneer and bearing its name on the reverse which is often described as being a Pioneer Caterpillar Club award with collectors sometimes paying sizeable sums of money in order to add it to their collection.

The pin, which is made from nickel plated brass, shows a parachutist with a deployed parachute. It measures approximately 25mm (1”) in height and 18mm (11/16”) in width. The reverse features the words PIONEER PARACHUTE CO. and a single clutch pin grip attachment mechanism.

The Pioneer Parachute Co. Promotional pin for their revolutionary Para-Commander and Para-Sail canopy design. This was a promotional piece and should not be confused with the Caterpillar award badges. Collection: Julian Tennant

The Pioneer Parachute Co. Promotional pin for their revolutionary Para-Commander and Para-Sail canopy design. This was a promotional piece and should not be confused with the Caterpillar award badges. Collection: Julian Tennant

This Pioneer pin is not a Caterpillar Club award but is actually just a promotional pin made for another of Pioneer’s innovations developed in collaboration Parachutes Incorporated (PI), namely the Para-Commander (PC) and Para-Sail parachute. The design of the pin’s parachute reflected this new PC canopy, which was a modification to an ascending, 24-gore (segment) parachute designed by the Frenchman Pierre M. Lemoigne and sold to Pioneer in 1962.

The multiple segments used to construct the canopy was revolutionary for parachutes of the time. Increased manoeuvrability and glide were provided by a vented rear and turn slots supported by stabilising segments on the sides. The skirt of the leading edge of the canopy was also positioned slightly higher thereby decreasing the drag and allowing air to be directed rearward towards the slots.  The rate of descent was slowed further because a lower porosity nylon taffeta used which added to the lifting characteristics of the canopy design.

Diagram plan views of the Pioneer Para-Commander rig showing feature details. Several of these, then, revolutionary design features can be seen in the PIONEER PARACHUTE CO. pin.

Diagram plan views of the Pioneer Para-Commander rig showing feature details. Several of these, then, revolutionary design features can be seen in the PIONEER PARACHUTE CO. pin.

The PC was first demonstrated at the Orange Sport Parachute Centre in Massachusetts on the 4th of December 1962 and a patent (SN 159,606) filed on the 21st of December 1962. This new ‘high performance’ parachute quickly became popular and by 1966 they were being used by all the competitors in the US National Parachuting championships, with trials also underway for its adoption by the US military.

Page details from the June 1966 USAF "Performance Evaluation of Para-Commander Mark I Personal Parachute" report of 1st Lieutenant Charles W. Nichols of the Air Force Test Center at Edwards Air Force Base in California.

Page details from the June 1966 USAF “Performance Evaluation of Para-Commander Mark I Personal Parachute” report of 1st Lieutenant Charles W. Nichols of the Air Force Test Center at Edwards Air Force Base in California.

By the 1970’s rectangular canopied Ram-air parachutes, such as the Paraflite Para-Plane were starting to take over the sport parachuting market, although PC rigs were still used for trainee and military parachuting applications into the 1980’s.

I am not sure if the Pioneer PC pin was given to new buyers of the parachute or whether there was some other distribution strategy, but whilst it is a memento reflecting an important development in the history of parachuting, collectors should not confuse the badge with the pins associated with membership of the Caterpillar Club.

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The Southern Rhodesia Commando ‘Cobra’ Qualification badge – 1941 – 45

In 1941, fearing that the Japanese may launch an invasion of southern Africa from Vichy French controlled Madagascar, the OC of B Coy Rhodesian African Rifles, Captain Alan Gardiner Redfern was tasked with training a commando force of Rhodesians that could undertake guerrilla operations should an invasion occur.

Redfern was a good choice, a competent bushman who as a young school-boy had spent his weekends and school holidays camping out in the veldt with a native companion and carrying very little apart from a rifle, blanket some mealie meal (maize flour) and condensed milk. He was proficient in both the main African languages, Chishona and Sindebele and prior to the war worked in the Native Department (later renamed Internal Affairs) of the Southern Rhodesia Civil Service.

lrdg-southern-rhodesia-commando-redfern.jpg

Captain (T/Maj) Alan Gardiner Redfern MBE, founder of the Southern Rhodesia Commando. Redfern was KIA in November 1943 whilst commanding B Squadron of the Long Range Desert Group on operations in the Aegean.

Recruits for the Southern Rhodesia Commando were a mix of volunteers and conscripts, many of whom were drawn from the farming community and as such already well versed with living in the bush. The unit was conceived as a part-time cadre, not as a regular unit, able to work behind enemy lines should the need arise. Training occurred over an initial period of six weeks with an emphasis on bushcraft, small unit guerrilla operations and a demolitions course which was conducted near Gwelo. After the initial training, the soldiers returned to their usual occupations although regular on-going training took place.

Southern Rhodesia Commando

Sheet brass Southern Rhodesia Commando ‘Cobra’ badge awarded to successful participants of Redfern’s commando course. This badge was intended to be worn on the right shoulder sleeve, although photographs of Rhodesian LRDG members who completed the course show it being worn on the left shoulder sleeve. This badge is stamped with the serial number 229, but I do not know the identity of the original owner. Collection: Julian Tennant

The men who finally completed the course were awarded the ‘Cobra’ badge as recognition of their qualification. The badge depicts a cobra poised to strike within a circlet containing the words “Southern Rhodesia Commando”.  Each badge was individually numbered and were made from sheet brass by Keays Gold and Silversmiths in Salisbury.  The award was made in two sizes, the larger version, shown above, and worn on the uniform, plus a miniature silver lapel badge (also numbered) for wear on civilian attire. In an unpublished manuscript shown to me by fellow collector, Eric Crépin-Leblond, the uniform of the Southern Rhodesia Commando is described as follows,
The No. 1 Dress uniform for part-timers who successfully completed the course was: Bush hat, turned up on the left side, pinned with the Lion and tusk badge. Khaki bush shirt, with curved brass ‘Rhodesia’ shoulder titles; ‘cobra’ badge in brass worn on the right sleeve below the shoulder. ’04 web belt. Trousers. Veldschoen.

Rhodesia SRC mini

Miniature version of the Southern Rhodesia Commando qualification for wear on civilian shirt lapels. These badges were made from silver sheet and also individually numbered. This particular badge, number 120, was sold via auction in 2010 to an unidentified collector in Canada.

Little more is known about the Commando cadre and it is thought to have numbered less than 500 qualified members before it was disbanded in 1945. Many of the men from the Southern Rhodesia Commando subsequently volunteered to serve with the Long Range Desert Group (LRDG), forming S1 Patrol. On the nominal roll/database page of the the Long Range Desert Group Preservation Society  there is a small photo of Sergeant Hubert ‘Hughie’ Hein where he can be seen wearing the ‘Cobra’ badge on his left shoulder. I believe that this photo is also shown on page 110 in Craig Fourie and Jonathan Pittaway’s book LRDG Rhodesia but unfortunately I don’t have a copy to confirm if it is the same picture. Training with the Southern Rhodesia Commando is mentioned by some of the Rhodesian members of the LRDG in Pittaway’s subsequent book Long Range Desert Group Rhodesia: The Men Speak which also includes a picture of Signalman John “Fossie” Kevan who, once again is wearing his ‘Cobra’ on the left sleeve.  I can only surmise that the reason for the LRDG members wearing the badge on the left shoulder rather than the right as outlined in the original dress instruction, is because the same position on the right sleeve would have been reserved for their parachutist qualification wing. In both photographs it also appears that there was some kind of dark cloth used as a backing for badge but I have not yet identified the colour used.

LRDG Rhodesia Signalman John Kevan-Recovered

Rhodesian member of the Long Range Desert Group, Signalman John “Fossie” Kevan shown wearing the Southern Rhodesia Commando ‘Cobra’ badge on his left sleeve. Note the dark backing material used behind the badge. Source: Long Range Desert Group Rhodesia: The Men Speak. by Jonathan Pittaway.

For his role in forming the Southern Rhodesia Commando, Redfern was awarded the M.B.E., which he accepted with the understanding that he could join the men that he had trained who had subsequently joined the LRDG. On 22 April 1943, Captain Redfern transferred from the KRRC, reverting to the rank of 2nd Lieutenant before taking over command of S1 Patrol (LRDG) once again as a Captain in May 1943.  On October 15 he was made OC of B Squadron, but was killed in action on the 12th of November 1943 during LRDG operations in the Aegean.

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Note that this site has NEW content posted every Sunday! If you like what you see here, please follow this page via email or by using either the buttons below or in the column on the right. Knowing that somebody is looking at this gives me the encouragement I need to go through my archives and collection to develop the content for the page. And of course, feel free to contact me here, via email or by visiting my Facebook or Instagram pages

BOOKS: British Airborne Insignia & Airborne Insignia Volume 2 by Oliver Lock

A handful of the World War 2 British Airborne wings and insignia in my collection. Photo: Julian Tennant

Airborne insignia provides a popular collecting focus for many collectors and as a result has become a lucrative market for dealers and opportunists who have seized on the opportunity to peddle faked badges for handsome profits. Faked insignia have been around for decades and whilst some are easily recognised as copies, a series of extremely well-made reproductions of British and commonwealth airborne and special forces badges that were being sold by the likes of Nicholas Morigi and Andrew Butler in the early 90’s really upped the ante. Whilst both dealers sold these detailed and artificially aged copies as reproductions, they could be extremely difficult to tell apart from the original insignia, as in the days before the internet became widespread, many collectors did not have access to originals for comparison and there was no solid reference books that dealt in sufficient depth with these insignia.  Many of these badges continue to pop up on eBay or dealers lists, but as ‘original’ insignia, commanding very high prices.

As a result, collecting WW2 period British Airborne and Special Forces insignia can be a minefield for even experienced collectors and money spent on good reference books is a sound investment that can help collectors prevent costly mistakes. However, for a long time most of the references that were available on the subject did little more than survey the insignia, identifying types and units but not providing the essential details that allowed collectors to determine originals from reproductions.

Oliver Lock Airborne Insignia books 1and2-01
Oliver Lock’s two books help to bridge that gap.  Both volumes were produced in conjunction with the Airborne Assault Museum, drawing extensively on their collection and archives. Both volumes are filled with close up detailed pictures of the insignia, front and back, plus important descriptive information regarding who made the badges and also how they were constructed, invaluable information when trying to ascertain whether a badge is an original ‘period’ piece.

The first volume, British Airborne Insignia deals specifically with the British Airborne forces, including the British Indian Army. Whilst the bulk of the book concentrates on the Second World War period it does also include a significant amount of information on the insignia that was used by the Airborne Forces post WW2. This is extremely useful as it allows comparisons to be made between contemporary and earlier war period insignia.

The follow up book, Airborne Insignia Vol. 2: Britain and her Allies in Exile, which was published in 2017 expands the focus to include the Australian and Canadian airborne units as well as the insignia used by the French, Belgian, Dutch, Norwegian, Polish and Italians (post armistice). It also includes several more chapters on British insignia variations that were not included in the first volume.

The pictures that are shown below are samples of some of the pages that are contained in each book. As can be seen, the information contained is detailed and comprehensive. Oliver’s two books provide invaluable reference material and should be on the bookshelf of every airborne insignia collector. Highly recommended.

British Airborne Insignia
Hardcover: 350 pages
Publisher: Military Mode Publishing (2015)
Language: English                                                                                                                                  ISBN-10: 1634524047
ISBN-13: 978-1634524049

British Airborne Insignia by Oliver Lock

British Airborne Insignia by Oliver Lock

Insignia 20_Part2 (1).pdf

Insignia 20_Part2 (1).pdf

Insignia 20_Part2 (1).pdf

Sample pages from British Airborne Insignia

 

Airborne Insignia Vol. 2: Britain and her Allies in Exile                                                          Hardcover: 245 pages                                                                                                                           Publisher: Military Mode Publishing (2017)                                                                                    Language: English                                                                                                                                  ISBN-10: 1513622498                                                                                                                              ISBN-13: 978-1513622491

Airborne Insignia Volume 2: Britain and her Allies in Exile by Oliver Lock

Airborne Insignia Volume 2: Britain and her Allies in Exile by Oliver Lock

AirborneVol2v10_Part1.pdf

AirborneVol2v10_Part1.pdf

AirborneVol2v10_Part1.pdf

Sample pages from Airborne Insignia Volume 2

Both books can be found on Amazon or you can contact the publisher, Military Mode Publishing here, http://www.militarymodepublishing.com/

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Note that this site has NEW content posted every Sunday! If you like what you see here, please follow this page via email or by using either the buttons below or in the column on the right. Knowing that somebody is looking at this gives me the encouragement I need to go through my archives and collection to develop the content for the page. And of course, feel free to contact me here, via email or by visiting my Facebook or Instagram pages

WW2 USN Submariner ‘Dolphins’ from an officer aboard USS Skipjack (SS-184)

USN Submariner badge, type 2, "deep wave" variation made by Hillborn & Hamburger Inc. and engraved "To Audrey from Sidney Kelf 11.25.42". Collection: Julian Tennant

USN Submariner badge, type 2, “deep wave” variation made by Hillborn & Hamburger Inc. and engraved “To Audrey from Sidney Kelf 11.25.42”. Collection: Julian Tennant

Another item from my collection this week. This time it is a WW2 USN “deep wave” type 2 Submariner badge made by Hillborn & Hamburger that I acquired from a family here in Australia. The badge originally belonged to Lieutenant Sidney Alfred Kelf who served aboard the Salmon class submarine, USS Slipjack (SS-184) in 1941 and 1942.

The badge came from the estate of Audrey Beryl Hughson an Australian who was given it as a keepsake by Kelf whilst he was stationed in Australia during WW2. The badge is engraved “To Audrey from Sidney Kelf 11.25.42” which indicates the engraving was done at the conclusion of the boat’s 5th war patrol which took Skipjack from the submarine base at Fremantle in Western Australia to Pearl Harbor.

USS Skipjack (SS-184) off Provincetown, Massachusetts during sea trials, 14 May 1938. Photograph from the Bureau of Ships Collection in the U.S. National Archives.

USS Skipjack (SS-184) off Provincetown, Massachusetts during sea trials, 14 May 1938. Photograph from the Bureau of Ships Collection in the U.S. National Archives.

USS Skipjack (SS-184) was laid down on 22 July 1936, launched 23 October 1937 and commissioned on 30 June 1938. It was one of the 29 submarines that formed the US Navy’s Asiatic Submarine Fleet that was based in Manila in the Philippines at the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. Skipjack left for her first war patrol off the east coast of Samar two days later. It ended on 14 January 1942 in Darwin, Australia and after 16 days in port, commenced her second patrol in the Celebes sea which concluded in March at the Fremantle base in Western Australia.

American Submarines at North Wharf, Fremantle, 1945. The ship in the background is submarine tender USS PELAIS, surrounded by her 'brood', which included the subs BONEFISH, RASHER, BOWFIN, BLUEFISH, NARWHAL, TINOSA, CREVALLE and COD. Photo: Family of RAN photographer, Saxon Fogarty

American Submarines at North Wharf, Fremantle, 1945. The ship in the background is submarine tender USS PELAIS, surrounded by her ‘brood’, which at that time included the subs BONEFISH, RASHER, BOWFIN, BLUEFISH, NARWHAL, TINOSA, CREVALLE and COD. Photo: Family of RAN photographer, Saxon Fogarty

On the 14th of April, under the command of Lt. Cdr. James Wiggins Coe, Skipjack left Fremantle for her third war patrol, this time in the South China Sea. The submarine had her first success on 6 May 1942 when it torpedoed and sank the Japanese transport ship Kanan Maru (2567 GRT) about 25 nautical miles north-east of Cam Ranh Bay, French Indochina. It followed this up on 8 May when it sank the Japanese transport ship Bujun Maru (4804 GRT) about 125 nautical miles east of Cam Ranh Bay and then the Japanese troop transport Tazan Maru (5477 GRT) near the Gulf of Siam on 17 May before returning to Fremantle on the 2nd of June.

On 18 July 1942, USS Skipjack left Fremantle for her 4th war patrol, this time in the Banda Sea and had her next victory when she torpedoed and damaged the Japanese fleet oil-tanker Hayatomo (14050 GRT) south-west of Ambon, Netherlands East Indies on 23 August. The patrol ended when she returned to Fremantle on 4 September.

I am not sure of when Sidney Kelf met Audrey or the circumstances of their meeting and the Audrey’s family could not provide me with any additional information about the relationship, but it would have occurred before Skipjack left for her 5th war patrol on 29 September 1942. Once again she was ordered to patrol in the Banda Sea, then work her way up north and end this war patrol at Pearl Harbor. On 14 October Skipjack had her next success sinking the Japanese transport ship Shunko Maru (6780 GRT) about 450 nautical miles west-south-west of Truk.

The Japanese Freighter S.S. Shunko Maru sinking in the central Pacific, after she was torpedoed by Skipjack (SS-184) on 14 October 1942. Photographed through Skipjack's periscope. Shunko Maru's back appears to be broken, and her hull bears traces of pattern camouflage paint. Photo: US National Archives # 80-G-33292

The Japanese Freighter S.S. Shunko Maru sinking in the central Pacific, after she was torpedoed by Skipjack (SS-184) on 14 October 1942. Photographed through Skipjack’s periscope. Shunko Maru’s back appears to be broken, and her hull bears traces of pattern camouflage paint. Photo: US National Archives # 80-G-33292

The submarine concluded her 5th war patrol in Pearl Harbor on 26 November 1942, before being ordered to Mare Island Navy Yard for an overhaul. It appears that Sidney Kelf did not accompany the submarine for refit to California but remained in Pearl Harbor and assigned to the Lapwing class Minesweeper,  USS Seagull (AM-30) which was reclassified as a Submarine tender.

USS Skipjack returned to Pearl Harbor after her overhaul and completed another 5 war patrols, sinking Japanese destroyer Suzukaze and transport ship Okitsu Maru on her 9th patrol and damaging the Japanese motor sail ship Tatsu Maru No.6 on her 10th and final patrol in November 1944. The submarine was then retired to training duties before being sunk during Test Baker, the second of two atomic bomb tests conducted at Bikini Atoll on 25 July 1946.

Insignia of USS Skipjack (SS-184) during WW2

Insignia of USS Skipjack (SS-184) during WW2

My research regarding the life and service of submariner, Lt. Sidney Alfred Kelf is far from complete and I do need to do a lot more research as my original records were lost when a computer hard-drive failed. I do know that he originally joined the navy as an enlisted man and was a Chief Torpedo-man before being commissioned. I also have a photograph of his grave headstone which indicates that he was born on May 8 1902, died October 31 1966 having served in the Navy in both World War 1 and 2.

USN submariner Kelf headstone

In addition to his submariner ‘dolphins’ badge, Sidney Kelf’s participation in two successful war patrols would have qualified him for the Submarine Combat Insignia with gold star. I am not sure what his medal entitlement is but as I intend to continue to research this individual, I’ll update this article as new information presents itself.

USN Submarine Combat Insignia qualification.

USN Submarine Combat Insignia qualification. This is one of two rare variations made by Sheridans of Perth to supply the submariners stationed at Fremantle during the war. Collection: Julian Tennant

 

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A rare WW2 Hungarian Paratrooper’s medal group

Medals, insignia, photographs and documents belonging to Hungarian paratrooper, Császár Vilmos. Collection: Julian Tennant

Medals, insignia, photographs and documents belonging to World War Two Hungarian paratrooper, Sergeant Császár Vilmos. Collection: Julian Tennant

Featured this week is a very nice medal group to a WWII Hungarian paratrooper that I hold in my collection.

The group belonged to Sergeant Császár Vilmos. I still know very little about him but have learned that he served in the 3rd Parachute Company in 1941 as Lance-Corporal, was later promoted to sergeant and survived the war. His medals give clues to his service, but I am still in the process of researching his story so cannot provide a more comprehensive overview of his service at this stage.

His medals include:
The Silver Medal of Courage (Magyar Nagy Ezűst Vitézségi Érem).
The Fire Cross with Wreath and Swords (Tűzkereszt koszorúval, kardokkal) which was awarded for 3 months service in the front line as a combatant.
The Six years Long Service Cross (Legénységi Szolgálati Jel III. Osztálya)
The Upper Hungary campaign medal (Felvidéki Emlékérem)
The Medal for the Liberation of Siebenbürgen (Transylvania) (Erdélyi Emlékérem) and
The Medal for the Recapture of South Hungary (Délvidéki Emlékérem)

Hopefully the Hungarian names for the medals is correct, I have found several different translated names for these medals and so am not 100% certain if my titles are right.

Also included in this group are his railway pass, bullion NCO’s parachutist wings, his extremely rare ‘Master’ parachutist badge which was awarded for 25 (perfect) jumps, plus several photographs of him in uniform and conducting parachute jumps.

Studio portrait of (Sergeant) Császár Vilmos wearing his medals, the distinctive silver bullion embroidered Hungarian parachutist wing for NCO's and the incredibly rare first class (sometimes referred to as the 'master') parachutist badge on the breast pocket. Collection: Julian Tennant

Studio portrait of (Sergeant) Császár Vilmos wearing his medals, the distinctive silver bullion embroidered Hungarian parachutist wing for NCO’s and the incredibly rare Master parachutist badge on the breast pocket. Collection: Julian Tennant

Sergeant Császár Vilmos' Railway booklet dated 26 Jan 1944. When the photograph for the pass was taken it appears that Sgt Császár Vilmos had only been awarded the Upper Hungary campaign medal (Felvidéki Emlékérem), the Medal for the Liberation of Siebenbürgen (Transylvania) (Erdélyi Emlékérem) and the Medal for the Recapture of South Hungary (Délvidéki Emlékérem). Collection: Julian Tennant

Sergeant Császár Vilmos’ Railway booklet dated 26 Jan 1944. When the photograph for the pass was taken it appears that Sgt Császár Vilmos had only been awarded the Upper Hungary campaign medal (Felvidéki Emlékérem), the Medal for the Liberation of Siebenbürgen (Transylvania) (Erdélyi Emlékérem) and the Medal for the Recapture of South Hungary (Délvidéki Emlékérem). He was subsequently awarded the ‘Fire Cross’ with wreath and swords reflecting at least 3 months in the front line as a combatant, the Silver Medal of Courage for bravery and  Six Year Long Service Cross. Collection: Julian Tennant

Studio portrait of (Sergeant) Császár Vilmos and female, possibly wife or sister? The photograph shows that his arm is in a sling, indicating a wound or injury so I am guessing that this photo was taken whilst on recovery leave. Note that Császár Vilmos is also wearing the bullion jump wing on the left side of his cap. Collection: Julian Tennant

Studio portrait of (Sergeant) Császár Vilmos and female, possibly wife or sister? The photograph shows that his arm is in a sling, indicating a wound or injury so I am guessing that this photo was taken whilst on recovery leave. Note that Császár Vilmos is also wearing the bullion NCO’s jump wing on the left side of his cap. Collection: Julian Tennant

 

I have not yet been able to discover much about Császár Vilmos. The presence of the Liberation of Siebenbürgen (Transylvania) (Erdélyi Emlékérem) medal, which was introduced on the 1st of October 1940 to commemorate the incorporation of Northern Transylvania into Hungary indicates that Császár Vilmos became a paratrooper early in the war and possibly a member of the Royal Hungarian 1st Honvéd Parachute Company, before it was expanded to a Battalion in 1941.

When the 1st Honvéd Parachute Battalion was formed, Császár Vilmos was posted to the 3rd Company. My knowledge of the operations undertaken by the Hungarian paratroopers is weak, so I am not sure about exactly where he fought although the inclusion of the Upper Hungary and Southern Hungary medals in the group provides clues for my continuing research. At this stage of my research I am still largely ignorant of the qualification requirements for these medals and what role Hungarian paratroopers may have carried out in those operations. Hungarian researcher and historian, David Kiss, has written a very informative English-language article about the early history of Hungarian paratroopers which details some of the operations they were involved in, but I am still trying to ‘connect the dots’ between the historical records and the service of this soldier. However as new information comes to light I’ll continue to update this post to reflect a more complete record of  Császár Vilmos military career.

 

Note that this site has NEW content posted every Sunday! If you like what you see here, please follow this page via email or by using either the buttons below or in the column on the right. Knowing that somebody is looking at this gives me the encouragement I need to go through my archives and collection to develop the content for the page. And of course, feel free to contact me here, via email or by visiting my Facebook or Instagram pages

 

‘Mad Mike’ Hoare’s Wild Geese mercenary patch

Original Wild Geese patch sold by the Hoare family via an advertisement in Soldier of Fortune magazine circa 1982. Collection: Julian Tennant

The Wild Geese patch as shown above is often misidentified as being a mercenary or mercenary veteran’s insignia. This is untrue, however there is a real connection between it and one of the world’s best known mercenaries.

Thomas Michael Hoare (born 19 March 1919), better known as ‘Mad Mike’ Hoare achieved legendary status in the mid 1960’s for his exploits as a mercenary in the Congo suppressing a Communist backed revolt and helping to rescue up to two thousand civilians from atrocities being carried out by the Simba rebels.

Hoare’s unit, comprising around 300 mostly South African mercenaries was officially designated 5 Commando Armée Nationale Congolaise (5 Commando ANC) but unofficially referred to as ‘The Wild Geese’. This was a reference to the unit shoulder patch which featured a goose in flight below the title ‘5 Commando’ and was inspired by the “flight of the wild geese”, when Patrick Sarsfield, the 1st Earl of Lucan took his 19 000 strong Irish Jacobite army into exile in France in 1691. The term subsequently became associated with all the Irish soldiers who served with the continental European armies from the 16th thru 18th centuries. Hoare, a soldier of Irish descent, used this as a way of distinguishing his 5 Commando from the French and Belgian mercenaries also active in the Congo at that time.

Original 5 Commando shoulder title from the estate of Bill Jacobs, a South African mercenary who served in the British Parachute Regiment prior to joining 5 Commando in the Congo in 1966-67. This is the 'heavy weight' wool variation of the insignia and is less common than the more extensively used light-weight variation which was produced on a tan polyester/cotton shirt type material. Collection: Julian Tennant

Original 5 Commando shoulder title featuring the flying Wild Goose, from the estate of Bill Jacobs, a South African mercenary who served in the British Parachute Regiment prior to joining 5 Commando in the Congo in 1966-67. This is the heavy-weight wool backed variation of the insignia and is less common than the more extensively used light-weight variation which was produced on a tan polyester/cotton shirt type material. Collection: Julian Tennant

In 1978, Daniel Carney’s novel about a British banker hiring a group of mercenaries to rescue a deposed African President from the hands of a corrupt dictator made its cinema debut as “The Wild Geese”. The title of the movie was based on Hoare’s 5 Commando nickname and he was hired as the technical advisor for the film which was mostly shot in South Africa. The mercenary commander, Colonel Alan Faulkner (played by Richard Burton) was patterned on ‘Mad Mike’ Hoare. The film was a commercial success and helped to reinforce the connection between the title and mercenary activities in the English-speaking world.

Colonel 'Mad Mike' Hoare wearing the uniform of his 5 Commando Armée Nationale Congolaise (5 Commando ANC) during the filming of the movie, The Wild Geese, for which he was hired as a technical advisor in 1977/78. Photographer unknown.

Colonel ‘Mad Mike’ Hoare wearing the uniform of his 5 Commando Armée Nationale Congolaise (5 Commando ANC) during the filming of the movie, The Wild Geese, for which he was hired as a technical advisor in 1977/78. Here, Mike can be seen wearing the more often seen ‘light-weight’ variation of the 5 Commando shoulder title on tan shirt type material. Photographer unknown.

Meanwhile, around the same time, Seychelles exiles allied with the ex-president James Manchan were holding discussions with the South African Government about the possibility of overthrowing the new Seychelles president, France-Albert René, whose supporters had deposed Mancham whilst he was visiting London the previous year. Both the South Africans and the Americans were concerned about the presence of a socialist government in the Seychelles and gave their blessing, directing Manchan’s representatives to Hoare.

With South African support, Hoare raised a team of 54 mercenaries (half of whom were actually serving members of the South African Defence Force) for the operation which he estimated would cost US$ 5 million to fund. However, they could only secure US$300 000 and this lack of financial backing led to compromises in the plan which ultimately led to a disastrous outcome.

It is beyond the scope of this article to go into detail about the operation which involved the mercenaries entering the Seychelles disguised as a rugby club (named “Ye Ancient Order of Froth Blowers“), then disperse around the island before launching the coup whilst René was holding a cabinet meeting. Terry Aspinall provides interesting additional information about the operation and its outcome on his mercenary-wars.net website and you can also see the Associated Press uncut video ‘rushes’ showing the aftermath of the operation in the AP Archive.

On 25 November 1981, Hoare and the main party of 43 mercenaries, with their weapons hidden in their luggage, flew into Seychelles International Airport at Pointe La Rue on Mahé. Unfortunately, the AK-47 of one of the mercenaries was discovered during a luggage check, triggering a six-hour gun battle at the airport. Eventually the mercenaries commandeered a Boeing 707 (Air India Flight 224) which flew them back to South Africa, leaving behind five mercenaries, one South African National Intelligence Service (NIS) agent and a female civilian accomplice, all of whom were arrested and subsequently convicted of treason in the Seychelles. One mercenary had been killed and two wounded.

Weaponry-1

Weapons and luggage abandoned by the mercenaries at Seychelles International Airport after the aborted coup attempt. Note the luggage stickers featuring the “Ancient Order of Froth Blowers” logos and the children’s toys which were used as part of the mercenaries deception plan. Photographer unknown.

Arriving back in South Africa, the mercenaries were initially charged with kidnapping, which carried no minimum sentence, but after international pressure this was upgraded to hijacking. After a five-month trial, 42 of the mercenaries were found guilty and given between six months and five years in prison although most sentences were later reduced to six months. For his part, however, Mike Hoare was sentenced to ten years in prison but was pardoned and released on the 7th of May 1985 after serving 2 years, eight months and 10 days of his sentence.

Lack of finances had contributed to the decision to hide the mercenary’s weapons in their luggage as smuggling them to the island by boat was too costly and now, facing mounting legal bills, a plan was devised to raise contributions from sympathetic observers. This included selling ‘Wild Geese’ merchandise via the Sunday Times newspaper in South Africa and later, Soldier of Fortune magazine. The fund raising merchandise included patches and autographed paperback copies of  Mike Hoare’s book, Mercenary, which recounted his adventures in the Congo.

Wild Geese patch SOF October 1982-02

Editorial in the October 1982 edition of Soldier of Fortune magazine advertising the patch and Mike Hoare’s ‘Mercenary’ book as part of the fund raising efforts for the “Mike Hoare Defense Fund”. Scan courtesy Alex Iide.

Back in those days I was a regular subscriber and after seeing the advertisement (or possibly the editorial promotion shown above) in Soldier of Fortune, I was soon the proud owner of a Wild Geese patch. This came with a personalised, serial numbered certificate, confirming that I was “an  Honorary Member of the Wild Geese”. From the same advert I also bought an autographed paperback Corgi 1982 reprint of Hoare’s book Mercenary. At the time, the patch cost US$5 and the book US$12.

Autographed 1982 Corgi Books reprint edition of Mike Hoare's book "Mercenary" that was first published in 1967. This was the signed edition that was sold via the advertisement in Soldier of Fortune magazine.

Autographed 1982 Corgi Books reprint edition of Mike Hoare’s book “Mercenary” that was first published in 1967. This was the signed Corgi 1982 paperback edition that was sold via the promotion in Soldier of Fortune magazine.

Unfortunately, I traded all of those items with another collector many years ago as at that point in time they were outside of my collecting interests. It was a decision that I later regretted as my focus began to shift to mercenary insignia, but thanks to the help of fellow collector Alan Bennett I have been able to get some of the original items that were advertised in SOF for my collection. Alan, who corresponded with the Hoare family at the time, also made me aware that the patch was actually made in two sizes although I only recall the larger size being offered for sale in the Soldier of Fortune promotion. I suspect that the smaller patch may be part of an earlier run of the the patches that were first offered for sale in South Africa as the note from Mike’s wife, Phylis describes them both as being ‘buff coloured’ whereas the original patch offered in Soldier of Fortune was white. UPDATE: Alan Bennett has kindly shared a picture of the smaller buff coloured badge with me and I have included it at the bottom of the post alongside his example of the larger original patch of the type sold in SOF.

wild geese patch note alan bennett

Note from Phyllis Hoare to Alan Bennett which mentions the second smaller patch. Photo courtesy Alan Bennett.

I say original, because despite being somewhat of a novelty item, these patches are actually being extensively reproduced and sold to collectors via eBay with varying descriptions along the lines of “5 COMMANDO MIKE HOARE MERCENARY CLOTH PATCH BADGE WILD GEESE” and the like. Some collectors, based on the descriptions being offered, may actually be led to believe that the patch was used by the mercenaries and on occasion dealers have tried to capitalise on that asking ridiculous prices for the patches. One dealer I am aware of currently has a patch listed for US$250, which he describes as an ‘original veterans badge’ along with a black & white photocopy of the “Honorary Member of the The Wild Geese” certificate.  Most of the faked patches are relatively cheap though and it is quite easy to distinguish the original patch from the copy and I’ve included pictures of both for comparison.

Right: The original "Wild Geese" patch sold by Mike and Phyllis Hoare via an advertisement in Soldier of Fortune magazine in 1982. These patches were sold to raise money for his legal bills and are NOT a veterans or mercenary unit patch as is often described. Left: One of the contemporary copies that are being sold to collectors, often with all sorts of outrageous identification descriptions. When compared the differences in detail is obvious. Collection: Julian Tennant.

Right: The original “Wild Geese” patch sold by Mike and Phyllis Hoare via an advertisement in Soldier of Fortune magazine in 1982. These patches were sold to raise money for his legal bills and are NOT a veterans or mercenary unit patch as is often described. Left: One of the contemporary copies that are being sold to collectors, often with all sorts of outrageous identification descriptions. When compared the differences in detail is obvious. Collection: Julian Tennant.

Alan was also kind enough to send me some other material, including correspondence with Mike Hoare’s wife, Phyllis and a scan of his “Honorary Member” certificate to include in this article as I no longer have mine. Some sources refer to Hoare creating a database of potential mercenary recruits whilst in prison by signing them up as “Honorary Members of The Wild Geese”, which has contributed to the mythology around these items, but I wonder if those sources are confusing these fundraising certificates with something more sinister? I don’t know.

Alan Bennett's personalised "Honorary Member of The Wild Geese" certificate that accompanied the patches sold in Soldier of Fortune magazine circa 1982. Pictures courtesy of the Alan Bennett collection.

Alan Bennett’s personalised “Honorary Member of The Wild Geese” certificate that accompanied the patches sold in Soldier of Fortune magazine circa 1982. Pictures courtesy of the Alan Bennett collection.

It is probably a question that I should have asked Mike’s son, Chris when we discussed these patches and the Soldier of Fortune promotion recently. He recalled the promotion in SOF and also provided the following information which is also in his biography of his father.

“To assist in paying the various legal fees, Mike had some round cloth badges made in two diameters, 105 mm and 60 mm. The badges said, ‘The Wild Geese’ and showed a goose flying over an island, and palm trees. A display in the Sunday Times of 20 June 1982 advertised the badges for sale for R5 with a signed certificate naming buyer’s honorary members of The Wild Geese. For another R10, buyers could also order signed copies of the Corgi edition of Mercenary. Later, Phyllis (Mike’s wife) advertised the badges for sale for $5 in Soldier of Fortune magazine in America; someone signed Mike’s name on the numbered certificates. There was a lot of sympathy for Mike and his Froth Blowers, and more than 3500 people responded…”

Apart from reminding me of the existence of the smaller patch, which I don’t recall being offered in the SOF advertisement or editorial promotion, Chris cleared up another thing that I had been thinking about. If Mike Hoare, was in prison at the time that all the books and certificates were being sold to his supporters, how did he sign them? Well, according to Chris it was someone else and that, considering the circumstance makes sense to me. However, despite this gem of information it should not detract from these very interesting items related to a colourful and legendary soldier.

"The Wild Geese" Ex Libris bookplate that accompanied Mike Hoare's books. My Corgi paperback edition of 'Mercenary' was signed however I think it may have also include a separate bookplate similar to this one. This particular example, which I obtained from Alan Bennett, is slightly larger than the Corgi paperback book and I suspect it may have been used with the other books that Mike was selling after his release from prison in the mid 80's. Collection: Julian Tennant

“The Wild Geese” Ex Libris bookplate that accompanied Mike Hoare’s books. My Corgi paperback edition of ‘Mercenary’ was signed however I think it may have also include a separate bookplate similar to this one. This particular example, which I obtained from Alan Bennett, is slightly larger than the Corgi paperback book and I suspect it may have been used with the other books that Mike Hoare was selling after his release from prison in the mid 80’s. Collection: Julian Tennant

Wild geese small Alan Bennett-Edit

Alan Bennett’s WILD GEESE patches including the smaller ‘buff’ coloured beret badge/patch that was referred to by Phyliss and Chris Hoare in correspondence. Courtesy the Alan Bennett collection.

 

Acknowledgements: I am very grateful to the assistance of fellow collectors Alan Bennett and Alex Iide for their help in finding images for some of the source material that I used in this article. Thanks guys, your help is very much appreciated.

 

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Malaysia trip report #2 – The Royal Malaysian Navy, Customs and Maritime museums, Melaka

Royal Malaysian Navy Museum (Muzium Tentera Laut Diraja Malaysia) Melaka

Royal Malaysian Navy Museum (Muzium Tentera Laut Diraja Malaysia) Melaka

During my first trip to Malaysia I did not leave Kuala Lumpur and whilst I did get to visit the Air Force and Police museums as well as some militaria shops, I did not make it to the two other places that I was keen to see, the Royal Malaysian Army and Royal Malaysian Navy museums, both of which are outside of KL.  So, on a return from a trip to visit the battlefields of Central Vietnam, I arranged to extend the break between AirAsia flights to give me a couple more nights in Malaysia.  Arriving at KLIA from Danang in the early evening, I took a taxi straight from the airport to the town of Melaka, about an hour and a half’s drive away. A one way trip cost me roughly the equivalent of US$45 and whilst it was not the cheapest option, it was the quickest for somebody who only had limited time.

Melaka (also referred to as Malacca) is the capital of the state of Malacca in the southwest of Malaysia and during the 15th century was one of South East Asia’s greatest trading ports, so as a result the town is steeped in maritime history. I came to visit the Malaysian Navy Museum, but first stop was the Maritime Museum of Malacca, situated just across the road and housed in a 36m long replica of the Flor De La Mar, a treasure-laden 16th century Portuguese galleon which sank during a storm in 1511 somewhere in the Straits of Malacca. The museum gives an overview of Malacca’s importance as a regional trading hub and its seafaring traditions from the time of the Malacca Sultanate through the Portuguese, Dutch and British periods. I quite enjoyed the museum, particularly the models and the cost of entry also included the Navy Museum, so this is definitely worth including on a visit to the Melaka.

Melaka Maritime Museum / Flor De La Mar                                                                          

Jalan Merdeka, Bandar Hilir,                                                                                                                75000 Melaka

Telephone: +60 (0)6-282 6526

Email: helpdesk@perzim.gov.my

Web: www.perzim.gov.my

Right next door to the Maritime Museum is the Royal Malaysian Customs Department Museum (Muzium Jabatan Kastam Diraja Malaysia) so I decided to check it out as well. This is a fascinating museum that is free to visit and has an abundance of items on display.  Exhibits include uniforms, customs measuring devices and of course, various seized items of contraband ranging from pornography to weapons and narcotics.

Royal Malaysian Customs Department Museum (Muzium Jabatan Kastam Diraja Malaysia). Knives seized by Malaysian Customs. The brass handled dagger design appears to have been influenced by aspects of the Fairbairn Sykes commando stiletto.

Royal Malaysian Customs Department Museum (Muzium Jabatan Kastam Diraja Malaysia). Knives seized by Malaysian Customs. The brass handled dagger appears to have been influenced by some design and manufacture aspects of the Fairbairn Sykes commando stiletto.

Royal Malaysian Customs Department Museum

Jalan Merdeka, Bandar Hilir,                                                                                                                75000 Melaka

Telephone: +60 (0)6-2833924

Web: http://www.customs.gov.my/en/mp

Across the road, the Royal Malaysian Navy Museum (Muzium Tentera Laut Diraja Malaysia) or Muzium TLDM to the locals, is dedicated specifically to the Malaysian Navy rather than a general naval history of Malaysia. Through a series of didactic panels, supported by various exhibits the museum outlines the development of the Royal Malaysian Navy and the role it plays in Malaysian society. The material being displayed is a mixture of equipment, uniforms, insignia, photographs and items related to the Royal Malaysian Navy’s interactions with other nations naval forces.

As a badge collector, I found the insignia exhibits particularly informative as it is often difficult to find good reference material identifying contemporary uniforms and badges. Most of the explanatory captions and panels also include English translations so it is quite easy to make sense of the displayed material. My specific interest in Airborne and Special Forces unit insignia was also well catered for with displays of uniforms and insignia relating to the Malaysian Naval Special Operations unit, Pasukan Khas Laut or more commonly known as PASKAL also being shown in the exhibits.

Insignia detail of a uniform worn by members of the Malaysian Naval Special Operations unit, Pasukan Khas Laut, more commonly known as PASKAL.

Insignia detail of a uniform worn by members of the Malaysian Naval Special Operations unit, Pasukan Khas Laut, more commonly known as PASKAL.

After spending the middle of the day checking out the Maritime and Naval Museums, I took a stroll back to my room via the touristy Jonker Street, checking out a couple of antique shops along the way. Nothing much to satisfy my needs and possibly over-priced to take advantage of gullible tourists such as myself, but worth a look anyway. In retrospect I should have headed to the Submarine Museum (Muzium Kapal Selam) but I had wanted to check out the shops around Jonker Street, so all good… next time. Then it was time for a quick bite and a beer before retiring for the night. In the morning I’d arranged for an early pick up to take me to back to KL International Airport via the Army Museum at Port Dickson… and I’ll save those pix for another post.

Royal Malaysian Navy Museum (Muzium TLDM)                                                                      

Jalan Merdeka, Bandar Hilir,                                                                                                                75000 Melaka

Telephone: +60 (0)6-283 0926

Opening Hours: 09:00 – 17:30 (closed 12:15 – 14:45 Friday)

Royal Malaysian Navy Museum (Muzium Tentera Laut Diraja Malaysia)

Royal Malaysian Navy Museum (Muzium Tentera Laut Diraja Malaysia)

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