Major-General Robert E Urquhart, commanding 1st British Airborne Division, with the Pegasus airborne pennant in the grounds outside his headquarters at the Hartenstein Hotel in Oosterbeek, 22 September 1944. Photograph by Sergeant D.M. Smith (Army Film & Photographic Unit). Imperial War Museum accession number: BU 1136
Memorial to the People of Gelderland on the grounds of the Airborne Museum Hartenstein. Photo: Julian Tennant
A British Paratrooper taking aim with an American M1 carbine from the first floor balcony of the Hartenstein Hotel in Oosterbeek, near Arnhem in The Netherlands. September 1944. The photograph was taken by Sergeant D M Smith, Army Film & Photographic Unit on Saturday the 23rd of September 1944. Sergeant Dennis Smith, the photographer, wrote: “We have had a very heavy shelling this morning, September 23rd and now the situation is serious. the shelling is hellish. We have been holding out for a week now. The men are tired, weary and food is becoming scarce, and to make matters worse, we are having heavy rain. If we are not relieved soon, then the men will just drop from sheer exhaustion”. The British 1st Airborne Division headquarters had been established in the Hotel during ‘Operation Market Garden’ and it is now the Airborne Museum ‘Hartenstein’.
17 Pounder anti-tank gun and re-enactor vehicle outside the Airborne Museum Hartenstein. This gun was part of X-Troop of the 2nd Airlanding Anti-Tank Battery, arriving by glider on September 18 at Landing Zone X between Wolfheze and Renkum. It took up several positions in the area north of the railway to support the advance of the 156th and 10th Battalions The Parachute Regiment along the Northern route into Arnhem, before being withdrawn to Oosterbeek. The crew managed to defend their position until the night of the withdrawal on September 25th/26th, 1944. They then buried the breech block, remaining ammunition and drained oil from the recoil cylinder. All the crew except for one wounded gunner managed to reach safety on the opposite bank of the river Rhine. Photo: Julian Tennant
The Hotel Hartenstein as it appeared in 1945, shortly after Operation Market Garden. From a photograph album compiled by Frank Tomlinson, 74th Field Regiment, Royal Artillery of North West Europe from 1944-46. Held in the National Army Museum. Accession number: NAM. 2014-08-16-447
For visitors exploring the battlefields related to Operation Market Garden, the Airborne Museum ‘Hartenstein’ in Oosterbeek serves as a rallying point and provides a focus for much of the activity surrounding the annual anniversary commemorations of the battle for Arnhem. The museum is housed in what was formally the Hotel Hartenstein, which served as the Headquarters for Major General Roy Urquhart, commander of the 1st Airborne Division during this famous battle in September 1944.
Operation Market Garden was launched in an attempt to capture a number of bridgeheads that would allow the Allies to bypass the Siegfried line and cross the Rhine, entering the German industrial base of the Ruhr pocket. Allied Airborne troops were dropped in the Netherlands to secure key towns and bridges along the axis of advance. The British 1st Airborne Division was tasked with seizing the most distant bridges at Arnhem and hold them for two to three days whilst awaiting the arrival of the British XXX Corps who were advancing up the corridor created by the Airborne operation.
Although Initially taken surprise by the landing of the 1st Airborne Division at Wolfheze and north of Heelsum the German forces quickly moved to regain the initiative. Allied intelligence had not accounted for the presence of the 9th SS Panzer Division in the area around Arnhem. This combined with poor communications and the distance of the landing zones from their objectives undermined British attempts to seize the bridges. Only the 2nd Battalion Parachute Regiment under the command of Lt-Col John Frost managed to reach the northern side of Arnhem bridge, which they held for four days.
The bulk of the British forces became trapped in Oosterbeek, fighting a brutal defensive action until the 25th of September when their situation became untenable and a retreat, code-named Operation Berlin began in an attempt to evacuate the remaining airborne troops to the South side of the Rhine. British engineers assisted in evacuating 2200 men across the river but on the morning of the 26th September, the operation was halted leaving 300 troops behind. In the nine days of Market Garden, combined Allied losses amounted to more than 17.000. The British 1st Airborne Division was almost completely destroyed and of the 10,000 men committed to the operation, casualties numbered 7,578 dead, wounded or missing.
Hartenstein, which was built as a villa in 1865 before becoming a hotel in 1942 was commandeered as the 1st Airborne Division’s headquarters during Operation Market Garden and badly damaged during the fighting. It was subsequently restored and once again used as a hotel before being purchased as the site for the Airborne Museum ‘Hartenstein’ which was officially opened by Major General Roy Urquhart in 1978.
In 2008 it was temporarily closed for an extensive renovation and expansion program which included a basement displaying the ‘Airborne Experience’, a series of dioramas which takes the visitor through the battle from the perspective of a British soldier. After being briefed on the mission you enter an Airspeed AS.51 Horsa Glider replica being battered by flak before exiting into the dimly lit streets of Arnhem as the battle rages around you. You then wander through a juxtaposition of life-size dioramas combined with period visual footage and an audio soundscape, approaching Arnhem bridge before retreating back to the perimeter around the Hotel Hartenstein and finally the Rhine River.
British airborne troops and vehicles at the Airborne Experience diorama at the Airborne Museum Hartenstein. Photo: Julian Tennant.
Entry to the Airborne Experience at the Airborne Museum Hartenstein Photo: Julian Tennant
Clark CA-1 Bulldozer transported in a Horsa glider and used by Royal Engineers of the 1st Airlanding Brigade during Operation Market Garden. Photo: Julian Tennant
Glider pilot at the Airborne Experience diorama in the Airborne Museum Hartenstein. Photo: Julian Tennant
The Airborne Experience display in the basement of the Airborne Museum Hartenstein. Photo: Julian Tennant
Parachute Regiment mortar crew in “The Airborne Experience” diorama at the Airborne Museum Hartenstein. Photo: Julian Tennant
“The Airborne Experience” diorama at the Airborne Museum Hartenstein. Photo: Julian Tennant
“The Airborne Experience” at the Airborne Museum Hartenstein. Photo: Julian Tennant
In addition to the ‘Airborne Experience’, the museum also features dioramas representing how the Hotel Hartenstein was used during the operation. One shows the medical post that was situated in the basement and the other shows the headquarters of Roy Urquhart. It also features several other exhibits and displays reflecting the experience of the battle from Dutch and German perspectives as well as a large collection of medals that have been donated to the museum by deceased veterans. The current displays reflect the current trend in exhibition design and many of the items that I saw at the museum during my first visit in 1991 are unfortunately no longer on display. This includes some of the uniforms and insignia that I was particularly interested in examining once again. In this respect, the Airborne Museum ‘Hartenstein’ is quite different to the Arnhem Oorlogsmuseum 40-45, which maintains an old-style approach to exhibit presentation and should also definitely be on your itinerary. In addition to the permanent collection, the museum also exhibits temporary displays related to the conflict and the grounds surrounding the building feature artillery pieces, a Sherman tank and memorials commemorating the battle.
Diorama featuring Major General Roy Urquhart in his HQ at the Hotel Hartenstein at the Airborne Museum Hartenstein. Photo: Julian Tennant
Detail from the Medical Aid Post that was set up at the Hotel Hartenstein during the battle. Note the bullion parachute wings on the chaplain’s sash. An interesting touch, but I am not sure that bullion wings were used during WW2. Photo: Julian Tennant
Signaller in the Command Post diorama at the Airborne Museum Hartenstein. Photo: Julian Tennant
Waffen SS insignia on display at the Airborne Museum Hartenstein. Photo: Julian Tennant
A selection of German cuff titles on display at the Airborne Museum Hartenstein. Photo: Julian Tennant
German Luftwaffe insignia on display at the Airborne Museum Hartenstein. Photo: Julian Tennant
Paratrooper of the Polish 1st Independent Parachute Brigade. Photo: Julian Tennant
Polish parachutist and glider borne infantry qualification badges. The initial parachutist qualification is the badge on the left, with each qualifying soldier being awarded an individually numbered badge. After completing an operational jump, a separate serial numbered wreath is attached to the badge (centre). The badge on the left is the Glider pilot qualification worn by the Polish troops. Photo: Julian Tennant
Watch, map, British medic’s brassard, British para qualification wing and plastic economy issue Royal Army Medical Corps beret badge.
RAF aircrew and British Paratrooper with a ‘dummy’ para in the background. Photo: Julian Tennant
An example of the uniform worn by a German SS soldier in 1944. Photo: Julian Tennant
Display featuring uniforms and equipment items used during Operation Market Garden at the Airborne Museum Hartenstein. Photo: Julian Tennant
German uniforms and equipment used during the battle for Arnhem’s bridges. Photo: Julian Tennant
A selection of 2nd and 3rd pattern Fairbairn Sykes daggers carried by troops of the 1st Airborne Division on display at the Airborne Museum Hartenstein. Photo: Julian Tennant
The museum also features a large display of medals which have been donated by veterans of Operation Market Garden.
Parachutist qualification and shoulder titles of the Parachute Regiment and 21st Independent Parachute Company, which acted as the pathfinder force for the operation. Photo: Julian Tennant
Insignia worn by members of the Glider Pilot Regiment. Photo: Julian Tennant
Detail of the helmet worn by a Glider pilot of the 1st Airlanding Brigade. Photo: Julian Tennant
The Airborne Museum also has an annex, Airborne at the Bridge, on the banks of the Rhine, opposite the John Frost Bridge. This annex tells the story of the battle fought by John Frost’s 2nd Parachute Battalion at the bridge from three perspectives, British Lieutenant John Grayburn, German Hauptsturmführer Viktor Eberhard Gräbner and Dutch Captain Jacob Groenewoud. Unlike the Airborne Museum Hartenstein, entry to Airborne at the Bridge is free and if you don’t have a MuseumKaart (see below), you can buy a discounted ticket to the Airborne Museum Hartenstein when visiting.
Military re-enactors in their jeep at the Airborne Museum Hartenstein for the Operation Market Garden commemoration held every September. Photo: Julian Tennant
Military vehicles being inspected by visitors to the Airborne Museum Hartenstein for the Operation Market Garden commemoration held every September. Photo: Julian Tennant
Norton WD Big 4 motorcycle and side-car at the commemoration event held at the museum each September. Photo: Julian Tennant
Airborne Museum Hartenstein Utrechtseweg 232
6862 AZ Oosterbeek
Telephone: 026 333 77 10
Open daily from 10:00 – 17:00 Closed on Christmas Day and New Year’s Day.
About the MuseumKaart option
The MuseumKaart is a Dutch annual pass scheme which gives the holder unlimited free entry into over 400 museums in the Netherlands. It costs €54.95 (excluding €4.95 administration fee) for adults and €32.45 for teenagers up to 18 years of age.
Previously buying a MuseumKaart was a great deal as it included a number of military-interest museums around the Netherlands, including the Airborne Museum, National Military Museum at Soesterberg, OorlogsmuseumOverloon, Verzetsmuseum (Dutch Resistance Museum), Rijksmuseum, Scheepvaartmuseum (Maritime Museum), National Holocaust Museum and Anne Frank House in Amsterdam to name a handful. If you were travelling around the Netherlands and dropping into the museums it was a ‘must have’ but unfortunately since 2018 the full unlimited year-long entry is now limited to Dutch residents and (for the same price) tourists receive a card that expires after only 5 museum visits or 31 days. However it can still be a worthwhile savings option depending on your plans.
The MuseumKaart website is in Dutch language only and online purchase is only to Dutch residents. However, you can buy the temporary (tijdelijk) MuseumKaart over-the-counter at some of the museums, including at the Airborne Museum Hartenstein.
Major & Mrs Holt’s Battlefield Guide to Operation Market-Garden. (Third Edition) Published 2013
On loan from 2 Commando Company and the Australian Commando Association – Victoria , this Dennison parachute smock was part of the recent From the Shadows: Australian Special Forces exhibition at the Australian War Memorial in Canberra.
The smock was worn by WO1 Douglas “Dutchy” Holland during his time as a PJI at the Parachute Training School at Williamtown. ‘Dutchy’, served in the RAF from 1940 until 1948 before joining the RAAF. He qualified as PJI number 6 at the first Parachute Jump Instructors course run by Parachute Training Wing (PTW) in 1954. A legend in the history of Australian parachute training, he was awarded the MBE for his services to military parachuting in 1958 and in 1959 became the first person in Australia to achieve 500 jumps. When “Dutchy” retired in 1962 he had completed 663 descents including 60 at night and 29 water jumps. He decorated this Dennison jump smock with various Australian and foreign parachute badges, including some (now) very rare and desirable insignia.
Whilst many people think that these are a Special Air Service wing, because of its shape and similarity to the design of the brass stamped British tropical dress SAS wing. It is in fact a Royal Australian Navy parachutist wing although there is an SAS connection.
It was introduced in 1994 as the Australian Navy ‘Special Duties’ parachutist qualification for the sailors (primarily clearance divers) who had passed the SAS selection and counter terrorist training cycle in order to serve as part of the TAG (Tactical Assault Group) which at that time was part of the Australian Special Air Service Regiment. Within months of its introduction it was decided that there was sufficient water ops capability within SASR and the requirement to include the CD’s as part of the TAG was removed, making the insignia virtually obsolete overnight as no more sailors would be likely to qualify for it.
Sailors who have NOT completed the SAS selection and CT training cycle are awarded the standard RAN parachutist wing upon completion of their para training. This includes the Clearance Divers who now form part of the east coast based TAG-E which is structured around the Sydney based 2 Commando Regiment. Only sailors who have completed the SAS selection and CT training are entitled to wear the SDU parachutist wing.
Collectors should note that no cloth or bullion wings of either of the RAN para wings variations are authorised, nor are they worn. They are fantasy/fake items, made for collectors.
These Australian SAS parachutist wings are amongst the most prized in my collection for a couple of reasons. Apart from their scarcity, they were given to me by Andy Russell who was serving in the SAS at the time and on 16 February 2002 unfortunately became the first Australian to be killed in Afghanistan, when the LRPV vehicle he was travelling in struck a mine. He left behind his wife Kylie and Leisa, his two-week-old daughter whom he had never met. Lest we forget!
Andy gave me the wings in late 1998 not long after he returned from a deployment to Kuwait as part of a US led coalition known as Operation DESERT THUNDER. Contrary to popular myth, this was the first operational deployment by an Australian Special Air Service Regiment unit to the region. No Australian SAS troops had taken part in the first Gulf War although some of the Navy clearance divers of CDT4 who conducted important operations in and around the coast of Kuwait during that conflict had served as sailors in the water operations element of the SAS counter terrorist squadron prior to 1994. In the aftermath of the war, the United Nations sent UN Special Commission inspection teams to Iraq to monitor their weapons program and check for evidence of WMD’s. Two SAS signallers from 152 Signal Squadron, corporal’s Mal V. and Mark S. formed part of one of these teams in 1993 but that was the extent of the Australian SAS involvement with Iraq and the region up until that point.
Then, in late 1997 Iraq began to deny entry to these teams and in response, a coalition led by the USA formed with the initial intention of mounting air strikes to enforce compliance. In February 1998, the Australian Government announced that it had responded to a request from the USA to participate in the coalition. Part of that response included elements of 1 SAS Squadron (A and B troops along with their integrated 1 Sig troop from 152). The squadron was bolstered by the attachment of a troop from the NZ SAS, which formed D troop. This ANZAC SAS force set up camp at a large Kuwaiti air base known as Ali Al Salem.
The squadron’s roll was primarily to undertake combat search and rescue missions (CSAR) into Iraq to rescue downed aircrew and other coalition personnel. A secondary mission was to undertake tactical surveillance and response operations on the Kuwait- Iraq border and a third role was to provide a quick response force (QRF) capability to respond to small scale Iraqi raids. Familiarisation and preparatory training began immediately but two weeks after arriving, the UN struck a deal with Saddam Hussein and the planned air strikes were put on hold. The operation was renamed Operation DESERT SPRING and preparations continued until May when the squadron was reduced to a troop and then returned to Australia in early June.
At the time, Andy Russell was serving in A troop, which was 1 Squadron’s air operations / freefall troop. Whilst deployed to Kuwait, the troop had 20 sets of these ‘desertised’ SAS wings made up by a US army tailor. The wings were never meant to be worn, nor would they ever be permitted to do so. They were sold/distributed within the troop as a memento of the deployment and like many of the sub unit patches so often seen, inject cash into the troop ‘goffa fund’ which was used to buy soft drinks, beer etc for troop functions.
With only twenty examples made, it is definitely one of the rarest Australian SAS badges, but for me, they are even more special having come from a friend who was doing what he loved best, but taken before his time.